Category Archives: Platforms

Shinnakasu GBP-1S Armored Valkyrie

GBP-1S Armor VF-1J Block 4 1ROBOTECH Technical Files

by Peter Walker and Pieter Thomassen with Rob Morgenstern

edited by: Tim Wing

Attachments

 

Designation: Shinnakasu Heavy Industries GBP-1S Ground Battle Protect system for the VF-1 Valkyrie

 

 

I. Dimensions:

  • Height: 14.1 meter
  • Depth: 4.8 meter
  • Breadth: 9.8 meter
  • Operational Weight: 37.1 metric tons.

 

 

II. Type:

GBP-1S: External booster, armor, and weapons pack optimized for ground combat outfitted onto a conventional Valkyrie. Restricted to Battloid mode.

 

III. Service History:

GBP-1S: Served with the UN Spacy from 2010 until 2017 and the UEDF Tactical Armored Space Corps from 2018 until 2020.

 

GBP-1S Armor VF-1J Block 4 6IV. Propulsion:

Same as the standard VF-1 Valkyrie plus:

  • Two Nakajima AST-11 assist thrusters on back, total output 85 kN.

Effective loss of one NBS-1 and sixteen LHP04 Vernier thrusters, and main engine reverse-Verniers from the standard model because of the external armor package; however, the GBP-1S armor system has a total of ten Nakajima NBS-1 Vernier thrusters integral to the Armor:

 

V. Performance:

  • Max running speed (ground only): 130 kph
  • Maximum delta-v (space): 4.9 kps

 

VI. Electronics:

All sensors the same as on a standard VF-1 Valkyrie, though the main radar is unusable as it is covered by the armor protection system.

 

VII. Armament:

While equipped with the GBP-1S Armor System, the VF-1 Valkyrie is unable to make use of its wing hardpoints. Only hand held weapons such as the GU-11 (in addition to the GBP-1S’s missiles) are available while this system is installed.

An armor and missile system designed to turn the Valkyrie into a Destroid. It sports two Nakajima AST-11 assist thrusters on the back and ten Nakajima NBS-1 vernier thrusters. Armament includes sixty-two GH-32 280mm short-range missiles (16 in chest, 11 in each shoulder, and 12 on each leg), three GH-100 armor-piercing short-range missiles in each forearm armor, with six additional missiles in each arm for a total of eighteen arm missiles, and six H-22T incendiary short-range missiles, three in each hip (86 missiles total).

GBP-1S Armor VF-1J Block 4 15

VIII. Armor:

The armor of the standard Valkyrie is composed of an advanced titanium-steel alloy. The armor stops all small arms fire, provides good protection against heavier infantry weapons, such as a 12.7mm machinegun round, and fair resistance to light mecha-mounted weaponry, such as the Zentraedi 22.3mm HE autocannon round.

The additional armor on the Armored Valkyrie is composed of a standard Chobam laminar developed in the late 20th century and improved with the materials science advances made during the Robotech era. This armor was mainly designed to defeat projectiles and other kinetic weapons. The armor stops all small arms, heavy infantry weapons fire, and light mecha-mounted weaponry, and provides fair to good resistance to medium mecha-mounted weaponry, such as the Valkyrie’s 55mm APFSDS round.

The Valkyrie provides full protection from nuclear, biological, and chemical hazards, using an overpressure cockpit environment activated by radiation and hazardous chemical sensors, or manually when biological warfare conditions are anticipated. The internal consumables supplies can provide atmosphere for two days maximum.

 

IX. Development:

An additional option for the standard Valkyrie was the use the Shinnakasu Heavy Industries GBP-1S external armor/missile system. These craft, known as Armored Valkyries, carried twice the armor and seventy additional short range missiles, but mobility was decreased immensely, and transformations were not possible until the armor was jettisoned. This concept was developed to further increase the versatility of the VF-1, turning it in minutes into a Destroid. However, since the ‘raison d’tre’ of the Veritech was mobility, and due to the Destroids’ own successes, this configuration was not used very often.

GBP-1S Armor VF-1J Block 4 17


 

 

Robotech (R) is the property of Harmony Gold. The Super Dimension Fortress Macross (R) is the properties of Big West Advertising and Studio Nue. This document is in no way intended to infringe upon their rights.

Original artwork by: Shoji Kawamori, Miyatake Kazutaka, Haruhiko Mikimoto and Hidetaka Tenjin

Acknowledgement is extended to the work of Egan Loo and the Macross Compendium. Egan Loo is given all credit for all quotes and paraphrasing of the Macross Compendium that has been utilized in this publication. 

Images Courtesy of Chad Wilson (Marchly) and the Macross Mecha Manual. Chad Wilson is given all credit for all images from the Macross Mecha Manual that have been utilized in this publication. 

Acknowledgement is extended to Peter Walker, Pieter Thomassen and Robert Morgenstern of the unofficial Robotech Reference Guide. Peter Walker, Pieter Thomassen and Robert Morgenstern are given credit for all quotes and paraphrasing of the unofficial Robotech Reference Guide that has been utilized in this publication. 

Images From – Macross Perfect Memory, This is Animation 11: the Super Dimension Fortress-1 Macross, Variable Fighter Master File VF-1 Valkyrie, Variable Fighter Master File VF-1 Valkyrie: Wings of Space, Variable Fighter Master File SDF-1 Macross VF-1 Squadrons, Macross Chronicle 23, Robotech Macross Saga Sourcebook and the Macross Mecha Manual

Content by Pieter Thomassen, Peter Walker and Robert Morgenstern; edited by Tim Wing

Copyright © 2005, 2004, 1999, 1997, 1995 Robert Morgenstern, Pieter Thomassen, Peter Walker; 2015 Tim Wing

 

 

Shinnakasu Fuel Ammunition Sensor Tactical (FAST) Pack

FAST Config ver.2.0 VF-1S Block 1 Fighter 1ROBOTECH Technical Files

by Peter Walker and Pieter Thomassen with Rob Morgenstern

edited by: Tim Wing

Attachments

Designation: Shinnakasu Heavy Industries Fuel Ammunition Sensor Tactical (FAST) Pack

 

I. Dimensions:

  • Fighter mode
  • Length: 14.0 meters
  • Height: 5.0 meters
  • Wingspan: 8.3-14.8 meters

GERWALK mode

  • Length: 11.3 meters
  • Height: 10.8 meters
  • Breadth: 8.6 meters
  • Wingspan: 8.3-14.8 meters

Battloid mode

  • Depth: 5.0 meter
  • Height: 15.4 meter
  • Breadth: 8.6 meter
  • Wingspan: 4.7-14.8 meter

General

  • Dry Weight: 19.2 metric tons.

 

II. Type:

FAST Pack Version 1: Conformal external reaction mass and Vernier thruster system configuration optimized for space combat outfitted onto a conventional Valkyrie. This first version did not have provisions for additional weapons and thus was designated Fuel and Sensor Tactical rather than Fuel Ammunition Sensor Tactical. Manufactured by Shinnakasu Heavy Industries.

Version 1 FAST Pack VF-1A Valkyrie Veritech 6FAST Pack Version 2 “Super Valkyrie”: External booster and armor configuration optimized for space combat outfitted onto a conventional Valkyrie. Manufactured by Shinnakasu Heavy Industries.

FAST Pack Version 3 “Strike Valkyrie”: External booster and armor configuration optimized for space combat outfitted onto a conventional Valkyrie. Essentially the same system as the Version 2, with a Mauser Rö-X2A double-barreled RRG mk4 particle beam cannon in place of the standard HMMP-02 missile launcher on the right side upper booster. Manufactured by Shinnakasu Heavy Industries.

FAST Pack Version 4 “Super Freya Valkyrie”: External booster and armor configuration optimized for space combat designed for use specifically on the VF-1X and VF-1P Valkyries. Manufactured by Shinnakasu Heavy Industries.

FAST Pack Version T “Super Ostrich”: External booster and reaction mass pack configuration specifically for the VT-1 Ostrich Veritech trainer.

 

III. Service History:

FAST Pack Version 1: Served with the UN Spacy from 2009 until 2013, though it was rarely used after the introduction of the version 2.

FAST Pack Version 2 “Super Valkyrie”: Served with the UN Spacy from 2011 until 2017, the UEDF Tactical Armored Space Corps from 2018 until 2024 and the UEEF Expeditionary Tactical Naval Corps from 2018 until 2028.

FAST Pack Version 3 “Strike Valkyrie”: Served with the UN Spacy from 2014 until 2017, the UEDF Tactical Armored Space Corps from 2018 until 2024 and the UEEF Expeditionary Tactical Naval Corps from 2018 until 2028.

FAST Pack Version 4 “Super Freya Valkyrie”: Served with the UEDF Tactical Armored Space Corps from 2023 until 2029.

FAST Pack Version T “Super Ostrich”: Served with the UN Spacy from 2014 until 2017, he UEDF Tactical Armored Space Corps from 2018 until 2031 and with the UEEF Expeditionary Tactical Naval Corps from 2018 until 2036.

 

FAST Config ver.2.0 NP-BP-01AIV. Propulsion:

As the standard model, plus:

Two P&W +EF-2001 booster engines in the FAST pack, capable of a total of 2354 kN of thrust. Total propellant capacity 11,000 kg in FAST pack and CTB-04 conformal fuel tanks on legs.

Extensive maneuvering thrusters on the NP-BP-01 ( NP-BP-T1 on VF-1D and VT-1) booster pack, and on two leg/engine-pod NP-FB-01 (NP-FB-T1 on VF-1D and VT-1) Vernier systems. Effective loss of one NBS-1 and four LHP04 Vernier thrusters on the standard model because of the additional external units.

 

FAST Config ver.2.0 VF-1A Block 9 Battloid 2V. Performance:

General data

Typical delta-v (space): 11.4 kps (14.4 for Super VF-1D and Super VT-1)

Note: The Super Valkyrie configuration is extremely un-maneuverable in an Earth-like atmosphere, and is thus almost exclusively used in extra-atmospheric operations. Hence, atmospheric performance data for fighter mode is not listed.

 

VI. Electronics:

Though the FAST designation was an acronym for Fuel Ammunition Sensor Tactical, no additional sensors were actually present. All sensors were the same on the standard VF-1.

 

VII. Armament:

Same as standard VF-1 Valkyrie, plus:

AMMP-01: 3 medium range (65 km) Mach 3.0 combined active/passive radar and thermal imager guided AMM-1 Arrow missile ejection tubes, with one reload per tube for a total of six missiles.

HMMP-02: 4 short range (2.5 kps in space) infra-red imager or passive radar homing HMM-01 120mm Starburst missile ejection tubes, with three reloads per tube for a total of sixteen missiles. Mounted on the NP-BP-01 booster pack.

NP-AR-01: Combined armor/missile package that mounted on the forearm of a Super VF-1 series Valkyrie and contains three HMM-01 Starburst missiles, two ready for launch and one reload.

NP-BP-01: This is a box-shaped FAST booster that attaches to the back of a Super VF-1 series Valkyrie. Its main engine is the +EF-2001 1180 kN reaction thruster and has three NBS-1 Vernier thrusters. The Rö-X24 beam gun or the HMMP-02 micro-missile launcher pod is mounted to the front of this booster. A terminating letter (L, R, C) indicates the number and location of the NBS-1 thrusters, meaning respectively left, right, center. The C is a prototype model with Verniers on both sides for a total of 6 Verniers.

NP-BP-T1: This is a barrel-shaped FAST booster that attaches to the back of a Super VF-1D or VT-1 Valkyrie. Its main engine is the +EF-2001 1180 kN reaction thruster and has three NBS-1 Vernier thrusters.

NP-FB-01: This is a set of thrusters and armor that attaches to the Super VF-1 series Valkyrie’s leg that facilitates maneuvering in space. Equipped with a CTB-04 conformal fuel tank and one LHP04 and five NBS-1 Vernier thrusters.

FAST Pack ver.T VT-1 Super Ostrich 3NP-FB-T1: A derivative of the NP-FB-01, this is a set of thrusters and armor that attaches to the VF-1D and VT-1 Valkyrie’s leg that facilitates maneuvering in space. Equipped with a CTB-04 conformal fuel tank, one LHP04 and six NBS-1 Vernier thrusters.

Rö-X24: Double-barreled RRG mk4 particle beam cannon, fires 10 MJ of particle energy up to 30 times/minute. Mounted on the NP-BP-01 booster pack or (on occasion) to a Battloid’s shoulder, though the latter configuration makes transformation impossible until the weapon is ejected. This weapon is a more robust derivative of the the EP-1.

FAST Pack Configuration Version 3 VF-1S Block 13 7

VIII. Armor:

The armor of the standard Valkyrie is composed of an advanced titanium-steel alloy. The armor stops all small arms fire, provides good protection against heavier infantry weapons, such as a 12.7mm machinegun round, and fair resistance to light mecha-mounted weaponry, such as the Zentraedi 22.3mm HE autocannon round.

The additional armor on the reinforced sections of the Super Valkyrie stops all small arms and heavy infantry weapons fire, provides good resistance to light mecha-mounted weaponry, such as the Zentraedi 22.3mm HE autocannon round, and poor resistance to medium mecha-mounted weaponry, such as the Valkyrie’s 55mm APFSDS round.

The Valkyrie provides full protection from nuclear, biological, and chemical hazards, using an overpressure cockpit environment activated by radiation and hazardous chemical sensors, or manually when biological warfare conditions are anticipated. The internal consumables supplies can provide atmosphere for two days maximum.

FAST Pack Configuration Version 3 VF-1S Block 13 6

IX. Development:

The superbly-armed Super variants of the Valkyrie were developed by Shinnakasu Heavy Industries located onboard the SDF-1 during the Frist Robotech War in response to field experience with the standard models, namely the specialized needs of a space-dedicated fighter with heavier weapons packages to defeat an opposing force that possessed vast numerical superiority. Super variants could be converted from standard versions in minutes, if the standard Valkyrie had the necessary connection ports. Most existing Valkyries were retrofitted with such connections, and after 2011, all new VF-1s had them built in. The Super version’s main distinction is the use of ejectable additional armor around the legs and arms, and the mounting of two FAST Pack fuel and booster packs on the plane’s back. In the front of the pods was room for weapons (save those specifically designed to be used on trainers, which included extra fuel). Typically, two multi-missile pods were mounted, though the Strike mission version saw a particle beam in the starboard pod and the standard sixteen-round short range missile pod in the port one. The Super Valkyrie also had the necessary electronics to carry six nuclear missiles, specifically developed for use against the gigantic Zentraedi warships. Every Super variant (with the exception of the trainer versions) carried an additional three Starburst missiles in the forearm armor. These space-optimized fighters were hardly ever used in the atmosphere where their external pods would hinder their aerodynamic properties.

 


 

Robotech (R) is the property of Harmony Gold. The Super Dimension Fortress Macross (R) is the properties of Big West Advertising and Studio Nue. This document is in no way intended to infringe upon their rights.

Original artwork by: Shoji Kawamori, Miyatake Kazutaka, Haruhiko Mikimoto and Hidetaka Tenjin

Acknowledgement is extended to the work of Egan Loo and the Macross Compendium. Egan Loo is given all credit for all quotes and paraphrasing of the Macross Compendium that has been utilized in this publication. 

Images Courtesy of Chad Wilson (Marchly) and the Macross Mecha Manual. Chad Wilson is given all credit for all images from the Macross Mecha Manual that have been utilized in this publication. 

Acknowledgement is extended to Peter Walker, Pieter Thomassen and Robert Morgenstern of the unofficial Robotech Reference Guide. Peter Walker, Pieter Thomassen and Robert Morgenstern are given credit for all quotes and paraphrasing of the unofficial Robotech Reference Guide that has been utilized in this publication. 

Images From – Macross Perfect Memory, This is Animation 11: the Super Dimension Fortress-1 Macross, Variable Fighter Master File VF-1 Valkyrie, Variable Fighter Master File VF-1 Valkyrie: Wings of Space, Variable Fighter Master File SDF-1 Macross VF-1 Squadrons, Macross Chronicle 23, Robotech Macross Saga Sourcebook and the Macross Mecha Manual

Content by Pieter Thomassen, Peter Walker and Robert Morgenstern; edited by Tim Wing

Copyright © 2005, 2004, 1999, 1997, 1995 Robert Morgenstern, Pieter Thomassen, Peter Walker; 2015 Tim Wing

 

 

Rockwell Bell VF-1 Valkyrie Veritech Fighter

VF-1A Block 4 Valkyrie Fighter 1

ROBOTECH Technical Files

by Peter Walker and Pieter Thomassen with Rob Morgenstern

edited by: Tim Wing

Attachments

Designation: Rockwell Bell VF-1 Valkyrie Veritech Fighter

I. Dimensions:

(Early VF-1, Blocks 1-6)

  • Dry Weight: 13.3 metric tons
  • Standard Take-off Weight: 18.5 metric tons
  • Max Take-off Weight: 37 metric tons

Fighter mode

  • Length: 14.2 meters
  • Height: 3.8 meters
  • Wingspan: 8.3-14.8 meters

GERWALK

  • Length: 11.0 meters
  • Height: 8.7 meters
  • Breadth: 7.3 meters
  • Wingspan: 8.3-14.8 meters

Battloid mode

  • Depth: 4.0 meters
  • Height: 12.7 meters
  • Breadth: 7.3 meters
  • Wingspan: 4.7-14.8 meters

II. Type:

VF-X: One man aerodynamic demonstrator for the VF-1 Valkyrie program. This was the first prototype of the VF-1 Valkyrie. It was capable of fighter mode only, and was used to explore the basic flight characteristics of the design. Manufactured by Rockwell International.

VF-X: One man Battloid prototype. This was the Battloid mode demonstrator for the VF-1 Valkyrie program. It was capable of Battloid mode only and was used to test the motive systems of this mode. Manufactured by Shinnakasu Heavy Industries.

VF-1A Valkyrie: One man all-weather aerospace combat mecha, three form Veritech. This specific model was built in the first 10 production blocks. Baseline VF-1 variant. Replaced by the VF-1N, though this type was typically identified as a VF-1A as well. Manufactured by Northrop.

VF-1N Valkyrie: One man all-weather aerospace combat mecha, three form Veritech. Improved VF-1 variant, replacing the VF-1A in production from block 11 through block 15. Powered by FF-2008 fusion turbines. Manufactured by Northrop Grumman, hence the N in the designation. Typically identified simply as a VF-1A.

NoV-1 Val’kiriya (Victor A): One man all-weather aerospace combat mecha, three form Veritech. Soviet nomenclature for the VF-1A, as it served in the Soviet Air Force. Manufactured by Northrop.

VF-1B Valkyrie: One man all-weather aerospace combat mecha, three form Veritech. Original designation for the VF-1S. Designation was changed from VF-1B to VF-1S early in 2008. This designation was used again for Block 9-14 Valkyries fitted with VF-1S head units, but equipped with baseline VF-1A avionics and engines. Block 9-15 VF-1Bs were a relative rarity. Manufactured by Northrop.

VF-1D Valkyrie: Two seat trainer with operational capabilities, three form Veritech. This specific model was built in 15 production blocks. Manufactured by Rockwell Bell, later by Rockwell Textron after the two companies’ merger.

VF-1DA Valkyrie: Two seat trainer with operational capabilities, three form Veritech. VF-1D airframe fitted with a VF-1A head unit. Manufactured by Rockwell Bell.

VF-1E Valkyrie: Two seat electronic intelligence recon mecha, three form Veritech. Based on the VF-1DA, with a large rotating radar system mounted on the dorsal side of the mecha in fighter mode. Manufactured by Rockwell Bell.

VF-1F Valkyrie: Two seat Wild Weasel defense suppression mecha, three form Veritech. Based on the VF-1D airframe with a VF-1R style head unit. Manufactured by Rockwell Bell.

VF-1J Valkyrie: One man all-weather aerospace combat mecha, three form Veritech. Manufactured by Shinnakasu Heavy Industries. This designation covered Blocks 1 through 7. Recognizable by distinctive head and typically assigned to flight leads and aces.

VF-1J+ Valkyrie: One man all-weather aerospace combat mecha, three form Veritech. This was a Northrop VF-1X, fitted with a special head built by Shinnakasu Heavy Industries. Shinnakasu did not build complete VF-1s after the Zentraedi Rain of Death, due to the destruction of their manufacturing facility in Japan.

VF-1JA Valkyrie: One man all-weather aerospace combat mecha, three form Veritech. VF-1J with a VF-1A style head unit. This designation covered Blocks 1 through 7. Manufactured by Shinnakasu Heavy Industries. Typically identified simply as a VF-1A.

VF-1L Valkyrie: One man all-weather aerospace combat mecha, three form Veritech. Long range interdiction variant with conformal reaction mass tanks and a VF-1A style head, minus the laser armament.

SuV-1 Val’kiriya (Victor B): One man all-weather aerospace combat mecha, three form Veritech. Soviet development of the VF-1A produced after the First Robotech War and the UEG-Soviet split. Manufactured by the Sukhoi Design Bureau.

VF-1R Valkyrie: One man all-weather aerospace combat mecha, three form Veritech. VF-1 with improved avionics. Feature a unique head based on that of the VF-1A, but with three Mauser RöV-20 lasers. Manufactured by Northrop. Typically assigned to flight leads and aces.

VF-1S Valkyrie: One man all-weather aerospace combat mecha, three form Veritech. Featured a distinctive head with four Mauser RöV-20 lasers, improved avionics and FF-2001D fusion turbines. Manufactured by Northrop. Typically assigned to squadron commanders.

VF-1X Valkyrie: One man all-weather aerospace combat mecha, three form Veritech. Introduced saw-tooth panel lines as the VF-1X, for lowered radar signature. Featured improved avionics and FF-2012 fusion turbines.

VF-1P Freya Valkyrie: One man all-weather aerospace combat mecha, three form Veritech. Originally designated VF-1X+. Final production variant. Incorporated the same saw-tooth panel lines as the VF-1X, for lowered radar signature. Introduced the FF-2021 fusion turbine, APG-997 radar and improved avionics. Recognizable by updated thrust vectoring nozzles/feet. The VF-1P featured the same head as the later block VF-1A, N and X Valkyries. Manufactured by Northrop Grumman.

VF-1X++ Valkyrie: One man all-weather aerospace combat mecha, three form Veritech. Proposed upgrade of the VF-1P. Introduced improved Vernier thrusters for greater maneuverability in space. Recognizable by shortened tail surfaces. The VF-1X++ did not go into production.

VE-1 Ostrich: Two seat electronic intelligence recon mecha (space use only), three form Veritech. Based on the VT-1 Ostrich airframe. Featured permanently attached configuration version T FAST Packs. Manufactured by Rockwell Textron (airframe) and Shinnakasu Heavy Industries (FAST Packs).

VERF-1 Valkyrie: Two seat electronic intelligence recon mecha, three form Veritech. Based on the VF-1D, with a large rotating radar system mounted on the dorsal side of the mecha in fighter mode. Manufactured by Rockwell Bell.

VEF-1 Valkyrie: Two seat electronic intelligence recon mecha, three form Veritech. Based on the VERF-1D, with a simplified electronic warfare package. Manufactured by Rockwell Bell.

VF-1G Valkyrie: One man electronic intelligence recon mecha, three form Veritech. Based on the VF-1A, with a large rotating radar system mounted on the dorsal side of the mecha in fighter mode. Manufactured by Northrop.

VR-1A Valkyrie: One man all-weather aerospace electronic warfare and photographic reconnaissance mecha, three form Veritech. Electronic Warfare variant of the VF-1A. Featured radar and sensor jamming equipment. Manufactured by Northrop.

VR-1D Valkyrie: Two seat all-weather aerospace electronic warfare and photographic reconnaissance mecha, three form Veritech. Electronic Warfare variant of the VF-1D. Featured radar and sensor jamming equipment. Manufactured by Rockwell Bell.

VT-1A Ostrich: Two seat, non-combat capable trainer, three form Veritech. Manufactured by Northrop.

VT-1B Ostrich: Two seat trainer with operational capabilities, three form Veritech. Combat capable VT-1 Ostrich, fitted with a VF-1A head unit. Manufactured by Northrop.

VF-1B Super 03FAST Pack Super Valkyrie: External booster and armor configuration optimized for space combat outfitted onto a conventional Valkyrie. Built in five variants. Manufactured by Shinnakasu Heavy Industries.

GBP-1S Armored Valkyrie: External booster, armor, and weapons pack optimized for ground and space combat outfitted onto a conventional Valkyrie. Restricted to Battloid mode. Manufactured by Shinnakasu Heavy Industries.

VFT-1 Orguss Valkyrie: Prototype external booster, heavy armor and weapons pack optimized for space and assault combat. Manufactured by Macross Onboard Factories.

SDP-1 Stampede Valkyrie: Permanently affixed external booster and armor configuration optimized for anti-spaceship assault. Outfitted onto a modified VF-1 airframe. Not capable of operations in atmosphere. Manufactured by Shinnakasu Heavy Industries.

III. Service History:

VF-X: Experimental aircraft, saw operation from 2005 until 2009.

VF-1A: Served with the UN Spacy and the Unified Forces from 2008 until 2017. (The Unified Forces included the US Air Force and US Navy from 2008 until 2017, the British Royal Air Force and Royal Navy from 2009 until 2017, the French Air Force and Navy from 2009 until 2017, the German Luftwaffe from 2009 until 2017, the Japanese Self Defense Force from 2008 until 2017, the Brazilian Air Force and Navy from 2013 until 2017, the Royal Australian Air Force and Navy from 2015 until 2017, the Argentine Air Force and Navy from 2015 until 2017 and the Soviet Air Force and Navy from 2009 until 2031.) Served with the UEDF Tactical Air Corps from 2018 until 2022, the UEDF Tactical Armored Space Corps from 2018 until 2024 and the UEDF Navy from 2018 until 2024. Served with the REF/UEEF Expeditionary Tactical Naval Corps from 2018 until 2028.

VF-1B: Served with the UN Spacy and the Unified Forces from 2014 until 2017, served with the UEDF Tactical Air Corps from 2018 until 2022, the UEDF Tactical Armored Space Corps from 2018 until 2024 and the UEDF Navy from 2018 until 2024. Served with the REF/UEEF Expeditionary Tactical Naval Corps from 2018 until 2028.

VF-1D: Served with the UN Spacy and the Unified Forces from 2008 until replaced by the VT-1 Ostrich.

VEFR-1: Served with the UN Spacy from 2011 until 2017, and with the UEDF Tactical Air Corps and Naval Corps from 2018 until 2031.

VF-1F: Served with the UN Spacy and the Unified Forces from 2008 until 2018 and with the UEDF Tactical Armored Space Corps from 2018 until 2020.

VF-1J: Served with the UN Spacy and the Unified Forces from 2008 until 2017, served with the UEDF Tactical Air Corps from 2018 until 2022, the UEDF Tactical Armored Space Corps from 2018 until 2024 and the UEDF Navy from 2018 until 2024. Served with the REF/UEEF Expeditionary Tactical Naval Corps from 2018 until 2028.

VF-1S: Served with the UN Spacy and the Unified Forces from 2008 until 2017, served with the UEDF Tactical Air Corps from 2018 until 2022, the UEDF Tactical Armored Space Corps from 2018 until 2024 and the UEDF Navy from 2018 until 2024. Served with the REF/UEEF Expeditionary Tactical Naval Corps from 2018 until 2028.

VF-1X: Served with the UEDF from 2019 until replaced by the VF-1P and with the REF/UEEF Expeditionary Tactical Naval Corps from 2019 until 2028.

VF-1P: Served with the UEDF Tactical Air Corps from 2021 until 2024, the UEDF Tactical Armored Space Corps from 2021 until 2029 and the UEDF Navy from 2018 until 2028.

VT-1: Served with the UN Spacy and the Unified Forces from 2009 until 2017, served with the UEDF from 2018 until 2031. Served with the REF/UEEF Expeditionary Tactical Naval Corps from 2018 until 2036.

VE-1: Served with the UN Spacy from 2014 until 2017, and with the REF/UEEF Expeditionary Tactical Naval Corps from 2018 until 2036.

FAST Pack VF-1 Super Valkyrie: Served with the UN Spacy from 2011 until 2017, served with the UEDF Tactical Armored Space Corps from 2018 until 2029 and with the REF/UEEF Expeditionary Tactical Naval Corps from 2018 until 2028.

GBP-1S Armored Valkyrie: Served with the UN Spacy from 2010 until 2020.

VFT-1 Orguss Valkyrie: Prototypes pressed into service with the UN Spacy from 2011-2014. Most models destroyed during conflict with Dolza’s forces. Last remaining model destroyed in the final battle of the SDF-1 with Khyron’s ship.

IV. Propulsion:

(Early VF-1, Blocks 1-6)

  • Two Shinnakasu/P&W/Rolls-Royce FF-2001 fusion turbines, engine output 11,500 kg x 2 at max. power; 23,000 kg x 2 available with overboost. Exhaust nozzles allowed for vectored thrust, serving in place of conventional elevators. System includes two reverse-Vernier thrusters, on blisters outboard of each intake; exhaust came directly from main turbine at a maximum of 20% thrust.
  • Powerplant: 2 x RRL-1 Miniaturized Protoculture-cell energizer, delivering 650MW total power.
  • Fuel Capacity: 20 Standard Canisters of Protoculture, 12.9 lit. D2O reactant for fusion engines.
  • Four Shinnakasu NBS-1 high-thrust Vernier thrusters, one on the ventral in fighter mode, three in the ‘backpack’ in Guardian and Battloid modes.
  • Eighteen P&W LHP04 low-thrust Vernier thrusters distributed around the aircraft; three on each engine block/leg, two on each arm, two on the nose cone, two on the ‘backpack’, and four on the torso/fuselage.
  • Vernier vents in the wings, as part of the aircraft’s space roll control.
  • Assorted gyroscopes for all-environment attitude adjustment and stability.

V. Performance:

(Early VF-1, Blocks 1-6)

Fighter modeimg098a

  • Max speed at 10,000 meters: Mach 2.71
  • Max speed at 30,000+ meters: Mach 3.87
  • Max speed at sea level: Mach 1.4
  • Stall speed (VTOL shift possible): 230 kph
  • Unboosted ceiling: 35,000 meters
  • Design g limit: +7

GERWALK Mode

  • Max speed at all altitudes: 500 kph
  • Stall speed: 0 kph (hover)
  • Max loiter time: 420 seconds
  • Max walking speed 100 kph

Battloid mode

  • Max flying speed at all altitudes: 194 kph
  • Stall speed: 0 kph (hover)
  • Max loiter time: 420 seconds
  • Max running speed (ground only): 160 kph

General data

  • Thrust-to-weight ratio, empty: 3.47
  • Thrust-to-weight ratio, standard T-O: 2.49
  • Thrust-to-weight ratio, maximum T-O: 1.24
  • Typical delta-v (space): 4.1 kps

VI. Electronics:

(Early VF-1, Blocks 1-6)

Radar System:

  • Hughes AWG-20 X-band pulse-Doppler radar, providing long-range detection and tracking of targets at all altitudes.

Optical tracking:

  • (Head/turret) Thomson DOS-2000 multi-band digital camera system, for medium range traversable UV, infra-red imaging and optical band detection and tracking;
  • Thomson LT-3 multi-frequency laser ranger and designator.
  • (Fighter-mode nose blisters) Zeiss TS-2 long range forward-looking telescopic array for IR spectrum (FLIR).

Tactical Electronic Warfare System (TEWS):

  • Elettronica Radar Warning Receiver (RWR)
  • OlDelft Infra-red Warning Receiver (IRWR)
  • Westinghouse ALQ-200(V) active radar jammer
  • Chaff dispenser
  • Flares
  • Active missile jammers
  • Multiple L-band VHF and UHF antennas.

VII. Armament:

(Early VF-1, Blocks 1-6)

Cannons:

  • 1, 2 or 4 x Mauser RöV-20 laser cannon (head/turret). Capable of firing 6000 pulses per minute, peak power 6 megawatts per cannon. One gun was mounted on the VF-1A, two on the VF-1J and VF-1D, and four on the VF-1S.

(2010-2011)

  • 2 x Mauser RöV-20 laser cannon in the nose blisters. Each laser was capable of firing 6000 pulses per minute, peak power 6 megawatts per gun. Weapons fired in a fixed-forward configuration. These guns were installed in place of the FLIR cameras on most of the SDF-1’s Valkyries beginning in 2010, in an attempt to relieve some of the thermal pressures on the guns in the head turret, as well as to reduce some of the ammunition pressures the SDF-1’s fighters faced after the vessel’s exile from Earth. Though sometimes used for precision strikes, the effectiveness of these additional guns was never more than dubious, and were not incorporated in models produced on Earth or after the Zentraedi Holocaust.

One center-line hardpoint could carry:

  • 1 x Hughes GU-11 55mm three barreled smoothbore rotary gun pod; has a 200 round capacity. Cannon fires APFSDS (Armor Piercing Fin-Stabilized Discarding Sabot) and HESH-I (High Explosive Squash Head-Incendiary) rounds at 1200 rounds/minute. Can fire in all modes: usually mounted on centerline hardpoint, or in the Battloid’s/Guardian’s hand.
  • or 1 x Rheinmetall GU-12 single smoothbore barrel gun pod. Fires 105mm APFSDS and HEAP (High Explosive Armor Piercing) semi-combustible case munitions at 45 rounds/minute. Ammunition supply is 40 rounds.
  • or 1 x Westinghouse ALQ-203 multi-spectrum jammer.
  • or a number of dedicated military payloads: sensor pods, weapons, or cargo pods.

VF-1A Block 4 Valkyrie Fighter 20Four wing hardpoints (two per wing) can each carry:

  • 3 x medium range (65 km) Mach 3.0 combined active radar and thermal imager guided AMM-1 Arrow missiles on a specialized MER (Multiple Ejection Rack). Various warhead options.
  • or 1 (inner) or 2 (outer) x Firebird missiles. A conventional warhead mounted on the frame of a RMS missile with a range of 234 km and a speed of Mach 6.5, guided by a combined IIR and active/passive radar seeker.
  • or 1 (inner) or 2 (outer) x RMS-1 “Angel Of Death” Nuclear Stand-off missiles. Reaction warhead (200 kT) mounted on a long range (250 km) Mach 4.0 combined multi-spectrum imager and active radar homing Reflex missiles. Customized for anti-starship operations. Maximum delta-v in space is 4 kps. RMS-1
  • or 1 x Silencer Anti-Radiation Missile (ARM).
  • or 3 x Alarm anti-radiation missiles. Mounted to a MER.
  • or 3 x Mk-82LDGP 230kg bombs; various fuse options, laser-guided. Mounted to a MER.
  • or 3 x AGM-65R Maverick air-to-ground missiles. Mounted to a MER.
  • or 1 x UMM-7; Armored container with 15 short range (2.5 kps in space) infra-red imager passive radar homing HMM-01 120mm Starburst missiles (from 2014 onward).
  • or 1 x UMM-9; Armored container with 10 short range (8 km) Mach 3.0 combined infra-red imager and active radar homing 190mm Hammerhead missiles, firing from five tubes. Various warhead options (from 2017 onward).

NOTE: The hardpoints can also carry recon and cargo pods and other weapons than the above. The hardpoints are on pivots, and can adjust as the Valkyrie’s wings swing forward or back. Loads held close to the wing (such as the triple AMM-1 MER) do not interfere with the Battloid-mode transformation. However, larger loads require the Valkyrie to keep its wings extended as it switches to Battloid.

NOTE: Some Valkyries were modified to carry up to eighteen AMM-1 medium-range missiles on each tail for a total of thirty-six missiles in addition to those under the wings. These missiles had to be fired and their support racks ejected before Guardian- or Battloid-mode transformation was possible. This option was considered hazardous to friendly aircraft, and was only made available under strict firing guidelines. Even then, only the most skilled pilots were allowed to carry this arsenal. In addition, though in principle the Vernier systems could compensate for the loss of the use of the tail by these racks, no atmospheric use of these additional missiles was ever recorded.

The most common payloads for this mecha were:

  • Air Superiority: one GU-11 on the centerline, 3 AMM-1 Stilettos on each wing hardpoint.
  • Ground Attack: one GU-11 on the centerline, 3 AMM-1 Stilettos on each outer wing hardpoint, and three Maverick R missiles or mk82 LDGP bombs on each of the inner wing hardpoints.

VIII. Armor:

The armor of the standard Valkyrie was composed of an advanced titanium-steel alloy, commonly referred to as “Space-metal”. The armor stopped all small arms fire, provided good protection against heavier infantry weapons, such as a 12.7mm machinegun round, and fair resistance to light mecha-mounted weaponry, such as the Zentraedi 22.3mm HE autocannon round.

VF-1A Block 4 Valkyrie GERWALK 1The Valkyrie provided full protection from nuclear, biological, and chemical hazards, using an overpressure cockpit environment activated by radiation and hazardous chemical sensors, or manually when biological warfare conditions are anticipated. The internal consumables supplies could provide atmosphere for two days maximum.

IX. Development:

No mecha is as well-known and admired by friend and enemy alike as the Valkyrie Veritech. It was the first mecha incorporating reconfiguring components that made it a transformable craft. It was also the fastest and most versatile of all UN Spacy mecha that fought in the First Robotech war.

The story of the Valkyrie begins in 2004. After 5 years of study, the Robotech Research Group led by Dr. Lang was capable of creating Earth mecha of sufficient power to counter the mecha utilized by the Zentraedi, as found in the SDF-1. However, the ground mecha that were being developed were not as fast as the Zentraedi mecha, and the fighters under development were of course not capable of ground combat. But because the Battle Pods were known to have such a great mobility, a fast mecha was necessary to counter incursions by these (the existence of the Zentraedi Power Armor designs was unknown at this early date). For a while the research group considered an assault helicopter mecha (that would ultimately evolve into the Southern Cross’ AGACS two decades later), but Dr. Lang eventually came up with the mechamorphosis concept which promised a far better speed since it could be incorporated into a jet fighter.

The Valkyrie would need a jet fighter form, to execute its main objective (air combat) and a humanoid form to give maximum mobility and versatility on the ground. Dr. Lang also incorporated an intermediate form to ease the conversion from airborne to ground mecha, and this GERWALK mode (later called Guardian) proved to be such a useful merger of the Fighter and Battloid characteristics that it was also used for high-mobility work near the ground, and not just for VTOL landings. The result was in full scale production a full year before the SDF-1’s launch date.

The original contractors for this craft were a consortium of Rockwell International and Bell Aircraft (a division of Textron). The standard variant of this craft was the VF-1A, which sported a single laser on the head, and was produced by Northrop Aviation. Under license, Shinnakasu Heavy Industries, one of the manufacturers of the FF-2001 engine for the aircraft, soon began to produce the VF-1J, which used an upgraded head, designed by Kyuusei industries, which added a second laser; the “J” designation denoting Japanese manufacture. This variant was used by flight and squadron leaders. Northrop also began to produce, in limited numbers, a ‘special’ Valkyrie, the VF-1S. With a new head-unit with four lasers, and substantially improved avionics and engines, this aircraft was issued only to commanders air group (CAGs). A conversion two-seat trainer, the VF-1D, with a new two-laser head and a slightly modified fuselage (the airbrake was deleted) was the only major variant to be produced by Rockwell International. It was fully combat-capable, and often was pressed into service in the war. The Valkyrie was also produced in some numbers by the factories on board the SDF-1 during its long journey in interplanetary space. In early 2009, a new dedicated trainer, known as the VT-1, was developed. The VT-1 was very similar to the VF-1D, but there were subtle changes. Firstly, its -1A derived head was modified to carry a dish-shaped retractable sensor pallet in the place of the single Mauser laser. In addition, the VT-1 sported small blisters on the wingtips that contained improved Vernier thrusters. Finally, the instructor, who sat at the same height as the student pilot in the VF-1D, was elevated approximately 30 centimeters. This caused a redesigned canopy and some minor changes to the fuselage. After the Holocaust, the Valkyrie remained in production as the premier combat mecha of the Earth forces, although its production had been shifted to factories on the moon, until it was replaced on the production lines by the Lightning and Alpha Veritech fighters. In 2016, new manufacture of the VF-1A stopped in favor of the VF-1N, which was basically a VF-1A with improved engines and avionics. At about the same time, the control interface of all Valkyries was completely redesigned. In earlier models, the main Fighter/Guardian mode controls included a center control stick, a throttle, and a stick to control fine movement for each arm in Guardian mode on the main control panel. This redundancy was eliminated, and the two sticks (now to either side of the pilot) controlled both the plane (in Fighter and Guardian modes), and the arms (in Guardian mode). In addition, the ejection seat was replaced by a new model, better suited for space maneuvering in case of a bail-out outside the atmosphere.

The Valkyrie saw service with the UN Spacy and several members of the Unified Forces (specifically the armed forces of the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan, Brazil, Australia, and Argentina) until these branches were disbanded, and with the United Earth Defense Force (UEDF) Tactical Air Corps and Tactical Armored Space Corps from their creation in 2018 until 2022 and 2026, respectively. The VF-1X and later the VF-1P continued in service with the UEDF Navy as their main variable fighter until the Invid Invasion. SDP-1 Stampede Valkyries served with the United Earth Expeditionary Force (UEEF) Expeditionary Tactical Naval Corps in the anti-spaceship role until 2028. The VE-1 survived longer, serving in the UEEF until replaced by the VF-6R/VE-12A combined ELINT Legioss in the mid-2030s.

 


 

Robotech (R) is the property of Harmony Gold. The Super Dimension Fortress Macross (R) is the properties of Big West Advertising and Studio Nue. This document is in no way intended to infringe upon their rights.

Original artwork by: Shoji Kawamori, Miyatake Kazutaka, Haruhiko Mikimoto and Hidetaka Tenjin

Acknowledgement is extended to the work of Egan Loo and the Macross Compendium. Egan Loo is given all credit for all quotes and paraphrasing of the Macross Compendium that has been utilized in this publication. 

Images Courtesy of Chad Wilson (Marchly) and the Macross Mecha Manual. Chad Wilson is given all credit for all images from the Macross Mecha Manual that have been utilized in this publication. 

Acknowledgement is extended to Peter Walker, Pieter Thomassen and Robert Morgenstern of the unofficial Robotech Reference Guide. Peter Walker, Pieter Thomassen and Robert Morgenstern are given credit for all quotes and paraphrasing of the unofficial Robotech Reference Guide that has been utilized in this publication. 

Images From – Macross Perfect Memory, This is Animation 11: the Super Dimension Fortress-1 Macross, Variable Fighter Master File VF-1 Valkyrie, Variable Fighter Master File VF-1 Valkyrie: Wings of Space, Variable Fighter Master File SDF-1 Macross VF-1 Squadrons, Macross Chronicle 23, Robotech Macross Saga Sourcebook and the Macross Mecha Manual

Content by Pieter Thomassen, Peter Walker and Robert Morgenstern; edited by Tim Wing

Copyright © 2005, 2004, 1999, 1997, 1995 Robert Morgenstern, Pieter Thomassen, Peter Walker; 2015 Tim Wing

 

 

Rockwell Bell VF-1 Valkyrie Veritech Fighter

VF-1A Block 1-8 01 (3)

Rockwell Bell VF-1 Valkyrie Veritech Fighter

VF-1 series Veritech Fighter technical file index

 


 

Gallery Index

VF-1 series Veritech Fighters

VF-1 Valkyrie FAST Packs and Armor packages

VF-1 series Valkyrie Veritech Fighter technical illustrations

 


 

Robotech (R) is the property of Harmony Gold. The Super Dimension Fortress Macross (R) is the properties of Big West Advertising and Studio Nue. This document is in no way intended to infringe upon their rights.

Original artwork by: Shoji Kawamori, Miyatake Kazutaka, Haruhiko Mikimoto and Hidetaka Tenjin

Acknowledgement is extended to the work of Egan Loo and the Macross Compendium. Egan Loo is given all credit for all quotes and paraphrasing of the Macross Compendium that has been utilized in this publication. 

Images Courtesy of Chad Wilson (Marchly) and the Macross Mecha Manual. Chad Wilson is given all credit for all images from the Macross Mecha Manual that have been utilized in this publication. 

Acknowledgement is extended to Peter Walker, Pieter Thomassen and Robert Morgenstern of the unofficial Robotech Reference Guide. Peter Walker, Pieter Thomassen and Robert Morgenstern are given credit for all quotes and paraphrasing of the unofficial Robotech Reference Guide that has been utilized in this publication. 

Content by Tim Wing

Copyright © 2015 Tim Wing

 

 

2С4 Тюльпан самоходный миномет

2S4

2S4 Tyulpan Self-propelled Mortar

from: Wikipedia

edited by: Tim Wing

The 2S4 Tyulpan (English: tulip) was a Soviet self-propelled 240mm mortar system. The Tyulpan was at one time the heaviest mortar in deployment among any country.

General Characteristics

  • Type: Self-propelled mortar
  • Place of origin: Soviet Union
  • In service: 1972-2024
  • Primary users: Soviet Union
  • Produced: 1969-1978

Specifications

  • Weight: 30 tons
  • Length: 8.5 meters
  • Width: 3.2 meters
  • Height: 3.2 meters
  • Crew: 9

History

The 2S4 entered service with the Soviet Army in 1972. In design, it was based a GMZ tracked minelaying vehicle, carrying an externally mounted M-240 240 mm breech-loading mortar on the rear of the hull.

 

Propulsion

  • Engine: V59 V-12 liquid-cooled diesel 387.76 kW (520 HP)
  • Suspension: Torsion bar

Performance

  • Road speed: 62 km/h
  • Operational range: 420 km
  • Power to weight: 17 HP/ton

Armor

 

Armor thickness, in Rolled Homogenous Steel Armor equivalency (RHAe)

  • Hull, frontal: 20 mm RHAe

 

2S4 2Armament

Primary

Though the crew consisted of four men, an extra five were required to operate the mortar. The 240mm mortar had a range of 9.65 km, or up to 20 km with extended range ammunition. Due to the large size of the weapon and the weight of the ammunition (130 kg for a standard projectile), it had a slow rate of fire: one round per minute. In addition to the high explosive rounds, it could fire armor-piercing, chemical and nuclear rounds. It could also fire the “Smel’chak” (“Daredevil”) laser-guided round.

  • 2S4 1Designation: M-240 240 mm breech-loading mortar
  • Calibers: 240 mm
  • Range, conventional rounds: 9.65 km
  • Range, extended range rounds: 20 km
  • Rate of fire: 1 round per minute
  • Warhead:HE, AP, Chemical, Nuclear (Fission)

Secondary

 

  • Designation: 7.62 mm PKT machine gun

 

Service History

The 2S4 saw action during the Soviet Union’s conflict in Afghanistan and the Global Civil War. In both conflicts, the Smel’chak projectile consistently destroyed targets quickly, precisely, and with only a few rounds. The extreme firepower per round compensated for the Tyulpan’s slow rate of fire.

Operators

Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Syria

 


 

Bibliography

Robotech (R) is the property of Harmony Gold. This document is in no way intended to infringe upon their rights.

Original artwork by: Unknown

Content by Tim Wing

Copyright © 2015 Tim Wing

 

 

БМ-27 Ураган Несколько Ракетомет

BM-27 1

BM-27 Uragan Multiple Rocket Launcher

from: Wikipedia

edited by: Tim Wing

The BM-27 Uragan (Russian: Ураган, “hurricane”; GRAU index 9P140) was a self-propelled multiple rocket launcher system designed in the Soviet Union. It began its service with the Soviet Army in the late 1970s, and was its first modern spin and fin stabilized heavy multiple rocket launcher.

 

General Characteristics

  • Type: Multiple rocket launcher
  • Place of origin: Soviet Union
  • In service: 1975 – 2031
  • Primary users: EBSIS
  • Wars: Soviet War in Afghanistan, Global Civil War, Unification War, Malcontent Uprisings, Palestine Conflict, Second Global Civil War
  • Designer: Splav State Research and Production Enterprise
  • Produced: 1975-2011, 2013-2020

Specifications

  • Weight, combat: 20 tons
  • Crew: 6

Design

The BM-27 Uragan was capable of launching 220 mm rockets from 16 launch tubes mounted on the rear of a ZIL-135 8×8 chassis. This vehicle was similar to that used in the FROG-7 free flight rocket system. It had two engines that powered its 20 tonnes to a maximum speed of 65 kilometers per hour. One engine drove the four wheels on the left of the truck, while the other engine drove the wheels on the right. The ZIL-135 had eight wheel drive, but only the front and rear axles were used for steering. It had a maximum cruising range of 500 kilometers.

 

Mobility

Two engines, with separate gearboxes and propeller shafts, that are longitudinally mounted, one on each side of vehicle immediately behind cab.

Ground Propulsion

  • Suspension: 8×8 wheeled

Ground Performance

  • Road speed: 65 km/h
  • Operational range: 500 km

 

Countermeasures

The cab of the ZIL-135 was NBC protected, allowing the rockets to be fired without exposing the crew to possible contaminants. The four-man crew could emplace or displace the system in three minutes.

 

BM-27 3
Armament

The BM-27 could use HE-FRAG, chemical, ICM or scatterable mine (PTM-3 or PFM-1) submunition equipped rockets, all of which were detonated by electric timing fuses. Each rocket weighed 280.4 kilograms. The warheads weighed between 90 and 100 kilograms, depending on type. A full salvo of 16 rockets could be fired in 20 seconds and could engage targets within a range of 35 kilometers.

Because of the size of the warhead, the range of the rocket and the speed that a salvo could be delivered, the BM-27 was very effective at mine laying. Each 220 mm rocket could scatter 312 anti-personnel PFM-1 mines. Minefields could be laid behind a retreating enemy or even be used to trap an enemy by encircling them. Tactics such as these were often used by the Soviets in Afghanistan.

Once the rockets have been fired, 9T452 (another ZIL-135 based vehicle) was used to assist in reloading. It carried additional rockets and a crane to transfer the rockets from the reloading vehicle to the launcher. The entire reloading procedure took around 20 minutes.

Before firing, stabilizing jacks must be lowered and the blast shield raised to protect the cab and its occupants.

  • BM-27 2Calibers: 220mm
  • Range: 35 km
  • Ammunition supply: 16

 

Fire Control System

Indirect fire aiming is achieved with the use of a PG-1 panoramic telescope. Although there are no night vision sights, the driver of the launch vehicle is equipped with a night vision device.

  • Designation: PG-1 panoramic telescope

 

Operators

Afghanistan, Guinea, Iran, Myanmar, Soviet Union, Syria, Tanzania, Vietnam, Yemen

 


 

 

Bibliography

Robotech (R) is the property of Harmony Gold. This document is in no way intended to infringe upon their rights.

Original artwork by: Unknown

 

Content by Tim Wing

Copyright © 2015 Tim Wing

 

 

БМ-21 Град Несколько ракетная

BM-21 Ural-375 06

BM-21 Grad Multiple rocket launcher

from: Wikipedia

edited by: Tim Wing

The BM-21 Grad (Hail) launch vehicle was a Soviet truck-mounted 122 mm multiple rocket launcher. It and the M-21OF rocket were developed in the early 1960s. BM stands for boyevaya mashina (combat vehicle), and the nickname grad means “hail”. The complete system with the BM-21 launch vehicle (based on the Ural-4320 six wheel truck) and the M-21OF rocket was designated as the M-21 Field Rocket System, though it was more commonly known as a the BM-21 Grad multiple rocket launcher system. Several other countries have copied it or developed similar systems.

General Characteristics

  • Type: Multiple rocket launcher
  • Place of origin: Soviet Union
  • In service: 1963-2031
  • Primary users: Eastern Block of Soviet Independent States
  • Wars: Vietnam War, Lebanese Civil War, Western Sahara War, Angolan Civil War, Cambodian–Vietnamese War, Sino-Vietnamese War, Iran–Iraq War, Soviet War in Afghanistan, Gulf War, Global Civil War, Unification War, Malcontent Uprisings, Palestine Conflict, Second Robotech War, Second Global Civil War
  • Designer: Splav State Research and Production Enterprise
  • Manufacturer: Splav State Research and Production Enterprise
  • Produced: 1963-2031

History

Development

The M-21 Field Rocket System (BM-21 launch vehicle with 122 mm multiple rocket launcher system) entered service with the Soviet Army in 1963 to replace the ageing 140 mm BM-14 system. The launch vehicle consisted of an Ural-375D six-by-six truck chassis fitted with a bank of 40 launch tubes. The original vehicle together with supporting equipment (including the re-supply truck 9T254 with 60 rockets) was referred to by the GRAU index 9K51; the launcher itself has the industrial index of 2B5. In 1976, the BM-21 was mounted on the newer Ural-4320 six-by-six army truck.

 

Mobility (Ural-4320)

Propulsion

  • Engine: KAMAZ-740 300 PS
  • Transmission: 5-speed manual
  • Suspension: 6×6 wheeled
  • Fuel consumption: 30 liters / 100 km

Performance

  • Road speed: 85 km/h
  • Road range: 1200 km

 

BM-21 Ural-375 05Armament

The Grad’s primary armament was the 122mm multiple launch missile system. The three-man crew could emplace the system and have it ready to fire in three minutes. The crew could fire the rockets from the cab or from a trigger at the end of a 64-meter cable. All 40 rockets could be away in as little as 20 seconds, but can also be fired individually or in small groups in several-second intervals. A PG-1M panoramic telescope with K-1 collimator can be used for sighting. The BM-21 can be packed up and ready to move in two minutes, which can be necessary when engaged by counter-battery fire. Reloading is done manually and takes about 10 minutes.

Each 2.87-meter rocket was slowly spun by rifling in its tube as it exited, which along with its primary fin stabilization kept it on course. Rockets armed with high explosive/fragmentation, incendiary, or chemical warheads could be fired 20 kilometers. Newer rockets have a range of up to 45 kilometers, depending on warhead type. Warheads weigh around 20 kilograms, depending on the type.

The number of rockets that each vehicle was able to quickly bring to bear on an enemy target made it effective, especially at shorter ranges. One battalion of eighteen launchers was able to deliver 720 rockets in a single volley. The system has lower precision than classical tube artillery and could not be used in situations that called for pinpoint precision. It relied on a large number of shells dissipating over an area for a certain hit rate on specific targets. Nonetheless, because of the short warning time for the impact of the whole volley, the BM-21 is still considered a fearsome weapon today.

  • BM-21 Ural-375 08Designation: M-21OF rocket
  • Calibers: 122 mm
  • Range: See below
  • Rate of fire: 2 rounds per second (typically launches in a volley of all 40)
  • Rate of fire, sustained:
  • Warhead: See below
  • Ammunition supply: 40 (BM-21-2)

The original “Grad” rocket had a range of about 20 kilometers. The first modification, called “G-M”, increased the range to about 27.5 kilometers, while the G-2000 modification further increased the range to about 40 kilometers. The range also varied due to the type of warhead.

  • 9M22U (M-21OF) (Soviet Union): 18.4 kg Fragmentation-HE warhead, maximum range of 12.66 km
  • 9M28F (Soviet Union): 21 kg Fragmentation-HE warhead, maximum range of 9.3 km
  • 9M28K (Soviet Union): 22.8 kg Anti-tank mines warhead, maximum range of 8.3 km
  • 9M43 (Soviet Union): 20.2 kg Smoke warhead, maximum range of 12 km
  • 9M217 (Soviet Union): 25 kg Anti-tank submunitions warhead, maximum range of 19 km
  • 9M218 (Soviet Union): 25 kg HEAT submunitions warhead, maximum range of 19 km
  • 9M519 (Soviet Union): 18.4 kg RF jammer warhead, maximum range of 11.5 km
  • 9M521 (Soviet Union): 21 kg Fragmentation-HE warhead, maximum range of 25 km
  • 9M522 (Soviet Union): 25 kg Fragmentation-HE warhead, maximum range of 23.3 km
  • PRC-60 (Soviet Union): 20 kg Underwater charge (for BM-21PD) warhead, maximum range of 3.1 km
  • Type 90A (China): 18.3 kg Fragmentation-HE warhead, maximum range of 20.3 km
  • M21-OF-FP (Romania): 6.35 kg Fragmentation-HE warhead, maximum range of 12.7 km
  • M21-OF-S (Romania): 6.35 kg Fragmentation-HE warhead, maximum range of 7.9 km
  • Sakr-45A (Egypt): 24.5 kg AT / AP submunitions warhead, maximum range of 26 km
  • Sakr-45B (Egypt): 20.5 kg Fragmentation-HE warhead, maximum range of 28 km

Also Incendiary, Chemical, Illumination, Antipersonnel mines.

Fire Control Systems

 

  • Designation: PG-1M panoramic telescope

 

Specifications (9K51)

  • Weight, combat: 13.71 tons
  • Length: 7.35 meters
  • Width: 2.4 meters
  • Height: 3.09 meters
  • Crew: 3 man

Variants

Soviet Union

BM-21: Original version known as the BM-21 launch vehicle. The launcher unit was mounted on a modified Ural-375D truck chassis.

BM-21-1: Launch vehicles are mounted on a family of Ural-4320 truck chassis.

2B17 or also BM-21-2: This upgrade was presented for the first time in 2003 and was developed by Motovilikha Plants from Perm. The system is fitted with a satellite navigation system NAP SNS, automated fire control system ASUNO, APP laying system and can fire a new generation of rockets with a range of 40 km (25 mi). The truck is the Ural-4320. This was the most common variant in EBSIS service during the inter-war period.

9P138 “Grad-1”: lighter 36-round version, mounted on a six-by-six ZIL-131 chassis. The vehicle with supporting equipment (rockets, transporter 9T450 and re-supply truck 9F380) is referred to as complex 9K55. The 9P138 can only use “short-range” rockets with a range of 15 km (9.3 mi). It used to be known in the West as BM-21b or M1976.

BM-21V 1BM-21V “Grad-V” (Vozdushnodesantiy – ‘airborne’) (UEDF designation M1975): Developed for airborne troops in 1969. A GAZ-66B four-by-four truck chassis is fitted with a 12-round 122 mm rocket launcher. The vehicle is sturdy enough to be air-dropped. Parts of the vehicle such as the canvas cab roof can be taken off or folded down to reduce its size during transit. Like the BM-21, the BM-21V has stabilizing jacks on the rear of the vehicle for support when firing. The launch vehicle has the industrial index of 9P125.

9А51 “Prima”: 50-round launcher on a Ural-4320 5t chassis. The vehicle together with fire control equipment, the ammunition transporter TZM 9T232M and the new rocket 9M53F is referred to as complex 9K59. Apparently only a small number was produced.

Grad-P Light portable rocket system: The complete system comprised a 9P132 single-round man-portable launcher (it could be reloaded and used again), a 9M22M 122 mm high-explosive fragmentation rocket and a fire control panel. The system was developed in the middle of the 1960s for North Vietnamese forces at war with the US. It was not accepted for service with the Russian Army, but it was and is still popular with paramilitary and guerrilla forces.

BM-21PD “Damba” (Protivodiversionnyi): 40-round launcher mounted on Ural-375D or 4320 truck chassis. Developed for protection of naval bases against underwater infiltrations, uses special ammunition PRS-60 (Protivodiversionnyi Reaktivnyi Snaryad). The vehicle together with ammunition transporter is referred to as complex DP-62 “Damba”.

A-215 “Grad-M”: 22-round naval version, entered service in 1978.

People’s Republic of China

Type 81 SPRL: The People’s Republic of China produces the Type 81, which was copied from Russian BM-21s captured in the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War. After reverse engineering, it entered service with the PLA in 1982, where its upgraded version was known as PHZ81. Due to the fact that it is a direct copy, the Type 81 is extremely similar to its Russian predecessor. Its 40 tubes are mounted on a Shaanxi Automobile Works Yan’an SX2150 six-by-six truck, which unlike the original Russian version, has a cab protected by blast shields.

Type 83 SPRL: This is a 24-round version, based on a Dong Feng truck. The launch tubes were arranged in three rows of 8. The launch vehicle had a total combat weight of 8,700 kilograms and could also be used as part of the mine-laying rocket system Type 84.

Type 89 TSPRL: 40-round launcher of the BM-21 or Type 81 mounted on a tracked chassis with 520 hp diesel engine. The same chassis was also used for the Type 83 152 mm self-propelled howitzer (PLZ83), the Type 89 120 mm tank destroyer (PTZ89) and several other specialized vehicles. The vehicle had a combat weight of 27.1 metric tons and carried 40 spare rockets. Its PLA designator was PHZ89.

Type 90 SPRL: The NORINCO (China North Industries Corporation) Type 90 40-round multiple rocket system is an indigenously designed and built system equipped with an automatic operating and laying system, an electric firing system and an automatically reloadable pack of 40 rockets. It is very similar to the M-77 Oganj but of 122 mm calibre. The chassis used is the Tiema SC2030 6×6 truck. A Type 90 MRL battalion consists of three batteries, each with 6 self-propelled rocket launchers, 6 ammunition re-supply trucks Tiema XC2200 with 80 rockets and a battery command post on a DongFeng EQ-245 6×6 truck.

Type 90A: Modernized version, based on a Tiema XC2200 6×6 truck chassis and fitted with a modern fire control system with GPS. The command post vehicle can lay and control a number of Type 90A systems by remote control for maximum firepower.

Type 90B: Digitalized version. The rocket launch vehicle is based on a Beifang Benchi 2629 series 6×6 truck (Mercedes-Benz copy) and has a longer cabin. Each set also had three forward observer vehicles, based on the armored WZ551.

PR50 SPMRL: Development of Type 90B SPMRL with firepower increased by 25% (50 rounds compared to the original 40 rounds). Incorporate features of Weishi series self-propelled multiple rocket launchers (WS SPMRL) series so that the operating cost and overall life cycle cost for both when most components of PR50 is interchangeable with that of WS series. Also incorporated is a feature originated in Type 90B, which is the adoption of rockets of different ranges, so PR50 has a wide range of 20 km to 40 km.

WS-6 SPMRL: A light weight and more compact derivative of unguided 122 mm PR50 SPMRL for rapid deployment, with number of tubes reduced by 60% to 40 * from the original 100 of PR50 MLS.

WS-22 SPMRL: A guided version of 122 mm PR50 MLS with primitive cascade inertial terminal guidance, with standard range of 20 to 30 km

Czechoslovakia

RM-70 launch vehicle, a Czechoslovak variant with the BM-21 launch vehicle launcher unit.

RM-70 (122 mm RAKETOMET vz. 70): In 1972 the Czechoslovak Army introduced its own version of the BM-21 launch vehicle, designated the RM-70. The launcher unit comprises a bank of 40 launch tubes arranged in 4 rows of 10 and it is mounted on an eight-by-eight 10-ton modified Tatra T813 truck. Unlike the BM-21, the RM-70 has an armored cab and enough room behind it to allow for the storage of further 40 rockets. Those rockets can be directly reloaded into launcher at the same time.

RM-70/85: Modification of RM-70 launch vehicle on unarmored Tatra T815 truck.

Poland

WR-40 Langusta: Deeply modernized and automated version, of the Soviet BM-21 based on the Jelcz P662D.35 6×6 truck; displayed at the MSPO 2007.

WR-40 “Langusta” (eng. European spiny lobster) (wyrzutnia rakietowa means rocket launcher): This was a Polish version with a new fire control system (with ballistic computer BFC201 and navigation system Sigma 30) and a modified launcher based on the Jelcz P662D.35G-27 6×6 truck (produced by Jelcz-Komponenty). The first vehicle entered service on March 20, 2007.

Egypt

The Egyptians domestically manufactured the rockets Sakr-18 and Sakr-36, with a respective range of 18 km and 36 km, and the latest Sakr-45 with a superior range of 45 km. Rather than a standard HE-Frag round, the Egyptian military preferred a 23-kilogram cluster munition, which could be extremely effective against lightly armored equipment and troop concentrations. Both rockets, as well as the original Soviet models, were fired by locally manufactured rocket launchers like the RL-21 (copy of BM-11) and RC-21 (copy of BM-21, similar to the Hadid HM20). The Helwan Machine Tools Company also produced portable systems with one, three, four and eight launch tubes.

Ethiopia

The Homicho Ammunition Engineering Complex produced the rockets while the Bishoftu Motorization Engineering Complex produced the launching tubes. These systems were mounted on commercial trucks of various types throughout its manufacture.

Korea

BM-11: Korean 30-tube version. The tubes were arranged in 2 banks of 15; all rockets could be fired in as little as 15 seconds. The basis for the BM-11 system was a Japanese manufactured Isuzu chassis.

MRL 122 mm M1977: UEDF reporting name for a system that appears to be a direct copy of the BM-21 “Grad”.

MRL 122 mm M1985: UEDF reporting name for a more modern version, based on an Isuzu 6×6 truck with a 40-round reload-pack mounted between the cab and the launcher.

Iran

D.I.O. from Iran produced copies of the BM-11 and BM-21 systems that can fire the original Soviet rockets as well as the locally developed “Arash” with a range of 20.5 km. There was also a rocket with a range of 75 km.

HM20: This was the Iranian version of the BM-21. The launch pack however consisted of 2 packs of 20 tubes.

HM23: Lighter 16-round version with two packs of 8 launch tubes.

Pakistan

KRL 122: Kahuta Research Laboratories from Pakistan developed a rocket launcher that was very similar to the North-Korean BM-11. The KRL 122 was originally based on an Isuzu truck but later models used the Reo M35 truck. In addition to the original Soviet rockets, the system can launch the “Yarmuk” rocket developed by Pakistan Ordnance Factories. The KRL 122 achieved a maximum range of over 40 km due to the use of upgraded 122 mm rockets.

Romania

APRA-40: Romanian variant of the Grad, 6-rocket launcher built on a DAC chassis.

APR-21 (aruncator de proiectile reactive – rocket launcher): Romanian 21-round launcher (3 rows of 7) mounted on a Bucegi SR-114 four-by-four chassis.

APR-40: Initially this designator was used for the original BM-21 “Grad” in Romanian service, but Aerostar SA developed an improved model, based on a DAC-665T six-by-six truck. A slightly improved model, called APRA-40 or 40 APRA 122 FMC is based on the DAC 15.215 DFAEG truck. Each launcher was normally accompanied by a re-supply truck MITC with a 6t crane and a trailer RM13. The system was also used by Botswana, Yugoslavia, Cameroon, Croatia, Iran, Iraq, Liberia and Nigeria.

Yugoslavia

LRSVM Morava: Universal modular MLRS, could use all models of Grad 122 mm rockets, both with M-77 Oganj and M-63 Plamen 128 mm rockets.

G-2000: Produced by EdePro, G-2000 122 mm missile had range of over 40 km.

South Africa

Valkiri: This was an improved South African design by Denel using 127 mm rockets.

Bateleur: Follow-on, more accurate version of the Valkiri. Based on the Withings (White Stallion) military recovery truck chassis. Also produced by Denel.

Thailand

DTI-2: The 122 mm Multiple rocket launcher by Defense Technology Institute.

 

BM-21 Ural-375 02BService History

The BM-21 Grad was used by every member of the Eastern Block of Soviet Independent States (EBSIS), as well as many other national armies from its introduction in the early sixties till the Invid Invasion in 2031. After the defeat of Invid forces in 2045, variants of the Grad re-entered service for a time with several Terran militaries, though they were quickly phased out after Earth-reunification.

Former Operators

Eastern Block of Soviet Independent States (EBSIS)

Soviet Union (Soviet Army), People’s Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian People’s Army – Land Forces), Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czechoslovak People’s Army – Ground Forces), German Democratic Republic (National People’s Army, Border troops), Hungarian People’s Republic (Hungarian People’s Army – Surface Forces), Polish People’s Republic (People’s Army of Poland – Polish Land Forces), Socialist Republic of Romania (Romanian Land Forces), People’s Socialist Republic of Albania (Albanian Land Force), Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Yugoslav People’s Army – Yugoslav Ground Forces (KoV), People’s Republic of Greece (Greek People’s Army), Syrian Socialist Republic (Syrian Socialist Arab Army), Iraqi Socialist Republic (Iraqi Armed Forces – Army, Iraqi Republican Guard), Kuwaiti Democratic Republic (Kuwait Army – Kuwait Land Force, Kuwait Marine Corps, Kuwait National Guard), Saudi People’s Republic (Saudi People’s Army), Iranian Democratic Republic (Iranian Armed Forces – Army Ground Force; Revolutionary Guards – Ground Force, Quds Force), Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (Afghan Army), Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (Korean People’s Army Ground Force), People’s Republic of China (People’s Liberation Army – PLA Ground Force), People’s Republic of Egypt (Egyptian Army), People’s Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (Armed Forces – Territorial Army), Somali Democratic Republic (Somalian National Army), People’s Republic of Benin (Army (l’Armée de Terre)), People’s Republic of the Congo (Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo – Army), Republic of Cuba (Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces – Army) and Republic of Nicaragua (Nicaraguan Armed Forces – Army Ground Forces)

Other Former Operators

Algeria, Angola,  Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Cyprus, Djibouti, Ecuador, Eritrea, Finland, India, Indonesia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

 


 

Bibliography

Robotech (R) is the property of Harmony Gold. This document is in no way intended to infringe upon their rights.

Original artwork by: Unknown Source

Content by Tim Wing

Copyright © 2015 Tim Wing

 

2С9 HOHA Самоходный миномет самообслуживания

2S9 1

2S9 NONA Self Propelled Mortar

from: Wikipedia

edited by: Tim Wing

The 2S9 NONA (Новейшее Орудие Наземной Артилерии – Newest Ordnance of Ground Artillery) was a self-propelled 120 mm mortar designed by the Soviet Union that entered service in 1981. The 2S9 chassis is designated the S-120 and based on the aluminum hull of the BTR-D airborne multi-purpose tracked armored personnel carrier. Generally, the 120 mm mortar is referred to as the Nona, with the 2S9 also known as the Nona-S; a BTR-80 based version is the 2S23 or Nona-SVK, and the towed 2B16 anti-tank gun version is named the Nona-K. It is estimated that well over 1,000 2S9s were built.

General Characteristics

  • Type: Self Propelled Gun
  • Place of origin: Soviet Union
  • In service: 1981-2031
  • Primary users: Eastern Block of Soviet Independent States (EBSIS)
  • Wars: Global Civil War, Unification War, Malcontent Uprisings, Palestine Conflict
  • Designer: TsNIITochMash
  • Manufacturer: Motovilikha Plants
  • Produced: 1979-2011
  • Number built: 1500

Design

The 2S9 Nona-S is an amphibious vehicle that can be propelled through the water by two rear water-jets. It is operated by a four-man crew comprising a commander, a driver/mechanic, a gunner, and a loader. The hull interior is separated into a command compartment, a fighting compartment and an engine compartment. A welded steel turret is located at the middle of the hull. The two-man turret has hatches for the gunner and loader respectively.

Mobility

2S9 3Propulsion

  • Engine: 5D20 Diesel, making 240 HP
  • Suspension: Torsion Bar
  • Fuel capacity: 400 liters

Performance

  • Road speed: 60 km/h
  • Water speed: 9 km/h
  • Operational range: 500 km
  • Power to weight: 27.1 HP/ton

Armor

The 2S9’s armor is composed of aluminum plate armor with a maximum thickness of 16 mm. The 2S9’s armor provides good resistance to lighter infantry weapons, such as the 7.62mm machine gun round, fair resistance to heavier infantry weapons, such as a 12.7mm machinegun round and no resistance light mecha-mounted weaponry, such as the Zentraedi 22.3mm HE autocannon round.

 

Armament

Primary

The 2S9 utilizes a 120 mm 2A60 mortar with a 1.8-meter-long barrel. It is breech-loaded and capable of firing HE (high explosive), white phosphorus and smoke rounds.

  • Designation: 2A60 Mortar
  • Calibers: 120mm
  • Range: 8.8 km (conventional), 12.8 km (extended)
  • Rate of fire, max: 10 rounds per minute
  • Rate of fire, sustained: 4 rounds per minute
  • Warhead: High Explosive (HE), White Phosphorous (WP)
  • Ammunition supply: 40-60 rounds carried internally, dependent on type

Specifications

  • Weight, combat: 8 tons
  • Length: 6.02 meters
  • Width: 2.63 meters
  • Height: 2.3 meters
  • Crew: 4 man crew

2S9 5Variants

2S9 NONA-S: 120mm mortar system mounted on the aluminum hull of the BTR-D airborne multi-purpose tracked armored personnel carrier.

2S23 NONA-SVK: 120mm mortar system mounted on the hull of a BTR-80.

2B16 NONA-K: Towed anti-tank gun version.

 

Operators

Eastern Block of Soviet Independent States (EBSIS)

Soviet Army

  • 2S9: 1981-2031

Afghanistan, Vietnam and People’s Republic of China

 


 

Bibliography

  • Wikipedia (English): 2S9 Nona 
  • Wikipedia (Русский): 2C9 

Robotech (R) is the property of Harmony Gold. This document is in no way intended to infringe upon their rights.

Original artwork by: Unknown source

Content by Tim Wing

Copyright © 2015 Tim Wing

 

Проект 12321 Джейран десантный корабль на воздушной подушке

AAist-class Landing Craft, Air-Cushion (LCAC)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

edited by Tim Wing

The Aist-class (UEDF reporting name; Russian Project 12321 Dzheyran) was the first large assault hovercraft operated by the Soviet Navy. It was designed by the Almaz design bureau wing of the Almaz Shipbuilding Company in 1964-1965. Production of the craft lasted from 1970 until 1985 at Almaz’s plant in Leningrad.

Class overview

  • Builders: Almaz Shipbuilding Company
  • Operators: Soviet Navy
  • Built: 1975–1985
  • In commission: 1975–2022
  • Completed: 20

General characteristics

  • CType: Air-cushioned landing craft
  • Displacement: 303 tons, full load
  • Length: 47.3 m
  • Beam: 17.8 m
  • Propulsion: 2 × 9,600 hp (7.2 MW) Kuznetsov NK-12MV gas turbines driving 4 axial lift fans and 4 propeller units (4 × four-bladed variable-pitch propellers, 2 pusher, 2 tractor)
  • Speed: 130 km/h
  • Range: 220 km at 93 km/h
  • Capacity: 80 tons
  • or 4 light tanks and 50 assault troops
  • or 2 medium tanks and 200 troops
  • or 3 APCs and 100 troops
  • Complement: 15 (3 officers)

Sensors and processing systems:

  • Kivach I band surface search radar
  • Drum Tilt H/I-band fire-control radar
  • High Pole B Square Head IFF

Armament:

  • 2 × twin AK-230 30 mm
  • 2 × quadruple SA-N-5 SAM launcher systems (not on all ships)
  • 2 × PK-16 chaff launchers (only on two ships)

Configuration

The Aist-class was built to roughly the same size as the British SR.N4 commercial channel ferry. The Russian name for this class is “maly desantny korabl na vozdushnoy podushke” meaning “small landing craft on air cushion”. The Aist-class prototype was built in 1970, and the type entered production in Leningrad in 1975. It was produced there at a rate of about six every four years. By the early 1990s, twenty to twenty four had been produced.

The craft began to be withdrawn following unification, and, by 2004, only six remained, in two levels of configuration. A modified main engine intake was installed on all Soviet Navy Aists in service with the Baltic Sea Fleet. These intakes are believed to include special filters to reduce the ingestion of salt water, sand and dust particles into the Aist’s engines and machinery, limiting the effects of salt water corrosion. The Aist’s have suffered from high cushion pressure, and they produce exceptionally heavy cushion spray, especially at low speeds.

BOperations

Three modified Aists (700 series) were based in the Baltic Sea, and the other three are in the Caspian Sea as of the First Robotech War. The earlier engines had been upgraded by that time to allow an increase in displacement up to 298 tons, which was up from the type’s original 260 tons but at a loss of roughly half the type’s original range. Some units carried two SA-N-5 quadruple SAM systems and chaff launchers. These Aist-class continued in this configuration during the post war period.

Registry, 2012-2022

  • #609
  • #610
  • #615
  • #700
  • #730
  • #722

 


 

 

Robotech (R) is the property of Harmony Gold. This document is in no way intended to infringe upon their rights.

Primary source: Wikipedia

Content by Tim Wing

Copyright © 2015 Tim Wing

Яковлев ЯК-44 радиолокационного обнаружения самолетов

Yak-44 1Yakovlev Yak-44 (Mullet) Airborne Early Warning (AEW) aircraft

from Wikipedia

edited by Tim Wing

The Yakovlev Yak-44 (UEDF reporting name Mullet) was a twin turboprop Airborne Early Warning (AEW) aircraft, resembling the United States Navy’s E-2 Hawkeye. It was used on the Soviet Navy’s Ulyanovsk class supercarriers and later on the Soviet Navy’s lone Prometheus-class super carrier.

  • Role: Carrier-based Airborne Early Warning and Control
  • Manufacturer: Yakovlev
  • Status: Retired

Design and development

In the late 1970s, the Soviet Navy started adopted a plan to build large aircraft carriers capable of operating conventional aircraft rather than the VSTOL Yakovlev Yak-38s operated by the existing Kiev class aircraft carriers. These new carriers required a shipborne airborne early warning (AEW) aircraft to be effective, and the Yakovlev design bureau was instructed to develop such an aircraft in 1979. While the AEW was the primary role for the aircraft, anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and carrier on-board delivery (COD) variants were produced as well.

The basic layout and size of the final Yak-44E design was similar to that of the Grumman E-2C which operated in the same role from American aircraft carriers, being a twin-engined high-winged monoplane with a rotodome above the aircraft’s fuselage. The Yak-44 was designed to carry much more fuel, and was therefore far heavier. The engines were two Zaporozhye D-227 propfans rated at 14,000 ehp (10,290 kW), each driving contra-rotating propellers. The crew of five were accommodated in a pressurized fuselage, while the aircraft’s rotodome, carrying a NPO Vega pulse-doppler radar could be retracted to reduce the aircraft’s height when stowed below decks in the carrier’s hangar. The aircraft’s wings also folded upwards, while a twin tail was fitted.

The aircraft was stressed to allow catapult launching and arrested landings, but was also capable of operating from the ski-jump ramps of the Kuznetsov-class carriers.

Yak-44 3Specifications (Yak-44E)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 5
  • Length: 20.39 meters
  • Wingspan: 25.70 meters
  • Height: 7.0 meters
  • Max. takeoff weight: 40,000 kg
  • Powerplant: 2 × Progress D-27 propfan, 10,290 kW (14,000 ehp) each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 740 km/h
  • Range: 4,000 km
  • Service ceiling: 13,000 m

 


 

 

Robotech (R) is the property of Harmony Gold. This document is in no way intended to infringe upon their rights.

Primary source: Wikipedia Yak-44

Content by Tim Wing

Copyright © 2015 Tim Wing