Canada, member state United Earth Government
by Tim Wing
Canada was a member state of the United Earth Government (UEG), and home to UEG’s capital: Monument City. Canada’s post war capital was London, which was rebuilt after the First Robotech War. Due to its low population density, Canada was lower on the target list during the Zentraedi attack on Earth in the final days of the First Robotech War.
- Motto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare (Latin), (English: “From Sea to Sea”)
- Anthem: “O Canada”
- Royal anthem: “God Save the King”
- Capital: London, Ontario
- Largest city: Monument City, Ontario
- Major Population Centers: Graystone, Saskatchewan; New Macross City, Ontario (destroyed 2012); Ogino City, British Columbia; Stone City Ontario; Thunder Bay, Ontario
- Major Military Installations: Garrison Shilo, Manitoba; Arviat Field (Nunavut Base), Arviat, Nunavut; Garrison Petawawa (Ontario Base), Ontario; UN Military Headquarters, New Macross City, Ontario (destroyed 2012); United Earth Command Headquarters, Monument City, Ontario; United Earth Forces Military Academy, Monument City, Ontario; Fort Sibly (Monument City Base), Monument City, Ontario; Donald Hayes Aerospace Base, Monument City, Ontario
- Official language: English
- Demonym: Canadian
- Government: Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
- Monarch: King Henry IX
- Legislature: Parliament
- Total area: 8,442,614 km2
- Population: 7,903,034 (2028 UEG census)
- Currency: United Earth Credits (UEC)
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning “village” or “settlement”.
Though Canada fared far better than its neighbor to the south, she still lost all her major population centers. The entire east coast, along with the provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were destroyed. Ontario suffered the worst, with nearly 99% of its population incinerated in an instant. In the west, Victoria and Vancouver in British Columbia were likewise destroyed. Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Newfoundland and Labrador were heavily damaged, with nearly the entirety of their populations in the south wiped out. So extensive was the destruction that these provinces were downgraded to the status of territories. The northern territories of Yukon, the Northwest Territory and Nunavut pulled through largely unscathed however. Though the cities (sic) of Whitehorse, Yellowknife and Iqaluit were destroyed, most of the small settlements who largely had populations under four thousand survived. Because of this, Canada emerged from the war with the largest surviving population in North America.
After the First Robotech War, Francophone separatists formally succeeded from Canada, forming the Free Nation of Quebec (the Quebec Quadrant, as it is referred to by the UEG). Quebec also abstained from joining the world government, remaining an independent nation state with strong diplomatic ties to Canada and the UEG. Quebec maintained a neutral stance throughout the cold war between the UEG and the Eastern Block of Soviet Independent States (EBSIS), perusing a policy of pacifism and isolation. Most of the industrial and technological base of the region was lost in the Zentraedi Rain of Death. Reconstruction was slower than in the rest of Canada due to it not having access to UEG reconstruction funding. The bulk of the populace lived in and around the capital of New Quebec City.
Canada was the primary battleground during the Second Robotech War due to the SDF-1’s resting place at SX Point 83 being the Robotech Masters’ primary objective. Much of the population of Monument City and Thunder Bay were lost during this war. This same corner of Ontario again found itself the site of hostilities as a major branch hive of the Invid’s Reflex Point was located over the wreck of the SDF-1.
Geography and climate
Canada occupies much of the continent of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south, and the US Unincorporated Territory of Alaska to the northwest. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean. By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after the Soviet Union.
Canada is home to the world’s northernmost settlement, the former United Earth Defense Forces (UEDF) Tactical Corps (TC) Cold Division Station Alert, on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island, which lies 817 kilometers from the North Pole.
Much of the Canadian Arctic is covered by ice and permafrost. Sub artic regions of the country remain largely in their pre-war natural state. The southern temperate zones had entered the initial stages of recovery by the beginning of the Second Robotech War, with grasslands and scrub-forests in areas that were once covered by boreal forests. The central prairies were also well on their way to recovery by this point. The southernmost regions that had the highest prewar population density remain to this day uninhabitable wasteland, with very little in the way of natural vegetation.
Postwar, Canada maintained its parliamentary system within the context of a constitutional monarchy, the monarchy of Canada being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The Canadian monarchy is a separate legal institution from the monarchy of the United Kingdom, though the two offices were held by the same individual. The sovereign from the end of the First Robotech War up until the Invid Invasion was King Henry IX. The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal figures in areas of governance was limited.
Each of the 86 members of parliament in the House of Commons was elected by simple plurality in an electoral district or riding. General elections must be called by the governor general, either on the advice of the prime minister or if the government loses a confidence vote in the House. Constitutionally, an election may be held no more than five years after the preceding election, although the Canada Elections Act limits this to four years with a fixed election date in October. The 25 members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional basis, could serve until age 75.
Canada was allotted 36 representatives in the General Council of the United Earth Government. These representatives were elected once every four years by a simple majority vote, by their district.
Provinces and territories
Canada was a federation composed of five provinces and seven territories. Provinces had more autonomy than territories, having responsibility for social programs such as health care, education, and welfare. Together, the provinces collect more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations of the UEG. Using its spending powers, the federal government could initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Canada Health Act; the provinces could opt out of these, but rarely did so in practice. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure that reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces.
Major Population Centers
Looking at the map of Canada, it is easy to be fooled into thinking that surviving population was quite small, since very few cities break the 50,000-population threshold for being considered a major population center. This, however, is deceiving. The northern territories have hundreds of settlements ranging from a few hundred to several thousand. This geographic dispersion was what allowed so many northern Canadians to survive the war relatively unscathed.
London, Ontario: London was rebuilt in the early post war period and served as the provisional capital. Originally, plans were made to rebuild Ottawa, but by the late teens these plans were abandoned.
New Macross City, Ontario: New Macross City was established when the UES Macross returned to Earth at the end of the First Robotech War. With a population of 70,000, it was the largest city on Earth up until its destruction in January 2014.
Monument City, Ontario: Monument was founded originally as a refugee camp after the destruction of New Macross City. It quickly grew in size and was declared the new capital of the UEG on Founders Day in 2017.
Greystone, Saskatchewan: Greystone Heights was a neighborhood of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, which survived the First Robotech War and hosted a large refugee population in the early days of reconstruction. Eventually it became one of the largest population centers in Canada. It name was shortened to Greystone in 2015.
Ogino City, British Columbia: Ogino City, named for its founder Makoto Ogino, was the primary west coast port and industrial center for Canada. Its inhabitants were composed primarily of survivors Seattle and Vancouver metropolitan areas. Several defense contractors relocated here after the war, to include Boeing. This city was the site of the Christmas Day Attack by Zentraedi Malcontent Khyron.
Stone City, Ontario: Third largest city in Ontario, after Monument City and London.
Thunder Bay, Ontario: Thunder Bay was a small city that survived mostly intact after the Zentraedi Rain of Death. Its population nearly doubled overnight, when nearby New Macross City was destroyed and many of its former residents arrived as refugees.
The 2028 UEG census enumerated a total population of 7,903,034. It is hard to determine the exact population at the end of the war, but it is suffice to say it was significantly less. Post war repopulation policies of mass cloning and subsidies for large families, as well as integration of micronized Zentraedi into the human population, resulted in at least a 100-fold increase from the post war surviving population. Immigrants also contributed greatly to this population explosion, as Canada had one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world, driven mainly by economic policy and habitable land. Canada’s population density, at .94 inhabitants per square kilometer was among the highest in the world.
According to the 2028 census, the country’s largest self-reported ethnic origin was European at 33%, Zentraedi at 25%, indigenous North American (First Nationer) at 22%, Asian at 14%, Caribbean and Central and South American at 3%, and African at 3%. Though a multitude of First Nationer languages was spoken, as well as Zentraedi, English was the official language of Canada of the First Robotech War. A portion of the population spoke French as their first language, but it was dropped as an official language in retaliation to the succession of Quebec.
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Content by Tim Wing
Copyright © 2018 Tim Wing