BM-27 Uragan Multiple Rocket Launcher
edited by: Tim Wing
The BM-27 Uragan (Russian: Ураган, “hurricane”; GRAU index 9P140) was a self-propelled multiple rocket launcher system designed in the Soviet Union. It began its service with the Soviet Army in the late 1970s, and was its first modern spin and fin stabilized heavy multiple rocket launcher.
- Type: Multiple rocket launcher
- Place of origin: Soviet Union
- In service: 1975 – 2031
- Primary users: EBSIS
- Wars: Soviet War in Afghanistan, Global Civil War, Unification War, Malcontent Uprisings, Palestine Conflict, Second Global Civil War
- Designer: Splav State Research and Production Enterprise
- Produced: 1975-2011, 2013-2020
- Weight, combat: 20 tons
- Crew: 6
The BM-27 Uragan was capable of launching 220 mm rockets from 16 launch tubes mounted on the rear of a ZIL-135 8×8 chassis. This vehicle was similar to that used in the FROG-7 free flight rocket system. It had two engines that powered its 20 tonnes to a maximum speed of 65 kilometers per hour. One engine drove the four wheels on the left of the truck, while the other engine drove the wheels on the right. The ZIL-135 had eight wheel drive, but only the front and rear axles were used for steering. It had a maximum cruising range of 500 kilometers.
Two engines, with separate gearboxes and propeller shafts, that are longitudinally mounted, one on each side of vehicle immediately behind cab.
- Suspension: 8×8 wheeled
- Road speed: 65 km/h
- Operational range: 500 km
The cab of the ZIL-135 was NBC protected, allowing the rockets to be fired without exposing the crew to possible contaminants. The four-man crew could emplace or displace the system in three minutes.
The BM-27 could use HE-FRAG, chemical, ICM or scatterable mine (PTM-3 or PFM-1) submunition equipped rockets, all of which were detonated by electric timing fuses. Each rocket weighed 280.4 kilograms. The warheads weighed between 90 and 100 kilograms, depending on type. A full salvo of 16 rockets could be fired in 20 seconds and could engage targets within a range of 35 kilometers.
Because of the size of the warhead, the range of the rocket and the speed that a salvo could be delivered, the BM-27 was very effective at mine laying. Each 220 mm rocket could scatter 312 anti-personnel PFM-1 mines. Minefields could be laid behind a retreating enemy or even be used to trap an enemy by encircling them. Tactics such as these were often used by the Soviets in Afghanistan.
Once the rockets have been fired, 9T452 (another ZIL-135 based vehicle) was used to assist in reloading. It carried additional rockets and a crane to transfer the rockets from the reloading vehicle to the launcher. The entire reloading procedure took around 20 minutes.
Before firing, stabilizing jacks must be lowered and the blast shield raised to protect the cab and its occupants.
Fire Control System
Indirect fire aiming is achieved with the use of a PG-1 panoramic telescope. Although there are no night vision sights, the driver of the launch vehicle is equipped with a night vision device.
- Designation: PG-1 panoramic telescope
Afghanistan, Guinea, Iran, Myanmar, Soviet Union, Syria, Tanzania, Vietnam, Yemen
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Original artwork by: Unknown
Content by Tim Wing
Copyright © 2015 Tim Wing