The 2S4 Tyulpan (English: tulip) was a Soviet self-propelled 240mm mortar system. The Tyulpan was at one time the heaviest mortar in deployment among any country.
Type: Self-propelled mortar
Place of origin: Soviet Union
In service: 1972-2024
Primary users: Soviet Union
Weight: 30 tons
Length: 8.5 meters
Width: 3.2 meters
Height: 3.2 meters
The 2S4 entered service with the Soviet Army in 1972. In design, it was based a GMZ tracked minelaying vehicle, carrying an externally mounted M-240 240 mm breech-loading mortar on the rear of the hull.
Armor thickness, in Rolled Homogenous Steel Armor equivalency (RHAe)
Hull, frontal: 20 mm RHAe
Though the crew consisted of four men, an extra five were required to operate the mortar. The 240mm mortar had a range of 9.65 km, or up to 20 km with extended range ammunition. Due to the large size of the weapon and the weight of the ammunition (130 kg for a standard projectile), it had a slow rate of fire: one round per minute. In addition to the high explosive rounds, it could fire armor-piercing, chemical and nuclear rounds. It could also fire the “Smel’chak” (“Daredevil”) laser-guided round.
Designation: M-240 240 mm breech-loading mortar
Calibers: 240 mm
Range, conventional rounds: 9.65 km
Range, extended range rounds: 20 km
Rate of fire: 1 round per minute
Warhead:HE, AP, Chemical, Nuclear (Fission)
Designation: 7.62 mm PKT machine gun
The 2S4 saw action during the Soviet Union’s conflict in Afghanistan and the Global Civil War. In both conflicts, the Smel’chak projectile consistently destroyed targets quickly, precisely, and with only a few rounds. The extreme firepower per round compensated for the Tyulpan’s slow rate of fire.
The BM-27 Uragan (Russian: Ураган, “hurricane”; GRAU index 9P140) was a self-propelled multiple rocket launcher system designed in the Soviet Union. It began its service with the Soviet Army in the late 1970s, and was its first modern spin and fin stabilized heavy multiple rocket launcher.
Type: Multiple rocket launcher
Place of origin: Soviet Union
In service: 1975 – 2031
Primary users: EBSIS
Wars: Soviet War in Afghanistan, Global Civil War, Unification War, Malcontent Uprisings, Palestine Conflict, Second Global Civil War
Designer: Splav State Research and Production Enterprise
Produced: 1975-2011, 2013-2020
Weight, combat: 20 tons
The BM-27 Uragan was capable of launching 220 mm rockets from 16 launch tubes mounted on the rear of a ZIL-135 8×8 chassis. This vehicle was similar to that used in the FROG-7 free flight rocket system. It had two engines that powered its 20 tonnes to a maximum speed of 65 kilometers per hour. One engine drove the four wheels on the left of the truck, while the other engine drove the wheels on the right. The ZIL-135 had eight wheel drive, but only the front and rear axles were used for steering. It had a maximum cruising range of 500 kilometers.
Two engines, with separate gearboxes and propeller shafts, that are longitudinally mounted, one on each side of vehicle immediately behind cab.
Suspension: 8×8 wheeled
Road speed: 65 km/h
Operational range: 500 km
The cab of the ZIL-135 was NBC protected, allowing the rockets to be fired without exposing the crew to possible contaminants. The four-man crew could emplace or displace the system in three minutes.
The BM-27 could use HE-FRAG, chemical, ICM or scatterable mine (PTM-3 or PFM-1) submunition equipped rockets, all of which were detonated by electric timing fuses. Each rocket weighed 280.4 kilograms. The warheads weighed between 90 and 100 kilograms, depending on type. A full salvo of 16 rockets could be fired in 20 seconds and could engage targets within a range of 35 kilometers.
Because of the size of the warhead, the range of the rocket and the speed that a salvo could be delivered, the BM-27 was very effective at mine laying. Each 220 mm rocket could scatter 312 anti-personnel PFM-1 mines. Minefields could be laid behind a retreating enemy or even be used to trap an enemy by encircling them. Tactics such as these were often used by the Soviets in Afghanistan.
Once the rockets have been fired, 9T452 (another ZIL-135 based vehicle) was used to assist in reloading. It carried additional rockets and a crane to transfer the rockets from the reloading vehicle to the launcher. The entire reloading procedure took around 20 minutes.
Before firing, stabilizing jacks must be lowered and the blast shield raised to protect the cab and its occupants.
Range: 35 km
Ammunition supply: 16
Fire Control System
Indirect fire aiming is achieved with the use of a PG-1 panoramic telescope. Although there are no night vision sights, the driver of the launch vehicle is equipped with a night vision device.
The BM-21 Grad (Hail) launch vehicle was a Soviet truck-mounted 122 mm multiple rocket launcher. It and the M-21OF rocket were developed in the early 1960s. BM stands for boyevaya mashina (combat vehicle), and the nickname grad means “hail”. The complete system with the BM-21 launch vehicle (based on the Ural-4320 six wheel truck) and the M-21OF rocket was designated as the M-21 Field Rocket System, though it was more commonly known as a the BM-21 Grad multiple rocket launcher system. Several other countries have copied it or developed similar systems.
Type: Multiple rocket launcher
Place of origin: Soviet Union
In service: 1963-2031
Primary users: Eastern Block of Soviet Independent States
Wars: Vietnam War, Lebanese Civil War, Western Sahara War, Angolan Civil War, Cambodian–Vietnamese War, Sino-Vietnamese War, Iran–Iraq War, Soviet War in Afghanistan, Gulf War, Global Civil War, Unification War, Malcontent Uprisings, Palestine Conflict, Second Robotech War, Second Global Civil War
Designer: Splav State Research and Production Enterprise
Manufacturer: Splav State Research and Production Enterprise
The M-21 Field Rocket System (BM-21 launch vehicle with 122 mm multiple rocket launcher system) entered service with the Soviet Army in 1963 to replace the ageing 140 mm BM-14 system. The launch vehicle consisted of an Ural-375D six-by-six truck chassis fitted with a bank of 40 launch tubes. The original vehicle together with supporting equipment (including the re-supply truck 9T254 with 60 rockets) was referred to by the GRAU index 9K51; the launcher itself has the industrial index of 2B5. In 1976, the BM-21 was mounted on the newer Ural-4320 six-by-six army truck.
Engine: KAMAZ-740 300 PS
Transmission: 5-speed manual
Suspension: 6×6 wheeled
Fuel consumption: 30 liters / 100 km
Road speed: 85 km/h
Road range: 1200 km
The Grad’s primary armament was the 122mm multiple launch missile system. The three-man crew could emplace the system and have it ready to fire in three minutes. The crew could fire the rockets from the cab or from a trigger at the end of a 64-meter cable. All 40 rockets could be away in as little as 20 seconds, but can also be fired individually or in small groups in several-second intervals. A PG-1M panoramic telescope with K-1 collimator can be used for sighting. The BM-21 can be packed up and ready to move in two minutes, which can be necessary when engaged by counter-battery fire. Reloading is done manually and takes about 10 minutes.
Each 2.87-meter rocket was slowly spun by rifling in its tube as it exited, which along with its primary fin stabilization kept it on course. Rockets armed with high explosive/fragmentation, incendiary, or chemical warheads could be fired 20 kilometers. Newer rockets have a range of up to 45 kilometers, depending on warhead type. Warheads weigh around 20 kilograms, depending on the type.
The number of rockets that each vehicle was able to quickly bring to bear on an enemy target made it effective, especially at shorter ranges. One battalion of eighteen launchers was able to deliver 720 rockets in a single volley. The system has lower precision than classical tube artillery and could not be used in situations that called for pinpoint precision. It relied on a large number of shells dissipating over an area for a certain hit rate on specific targets. Nonetheless, because of the short warning time for the impact of the whole volley, the BM-21 is still considered a fearsome weapon today.
Designation: M-21OF rocket
Calibers: 122 mm
Range: See below
Rate of fire: 2 rounds per second (typically launches in a volley of all 40)
Rate of fire, sustained:
Warhead: See below
Ammunition supply: 40 (BM-21-2)
The original “Grad” rocket had a range of about 20 kilometers. The first modification, called “G-M”, increased the range to about 27.5 kilometers, while the G-2000 modification further increased the range to about 40 kilometers. The range also varied due to the type of warhead.
9M22U (M-21OF) (Soviet Union): 18.4 kg Fragmentation-HE warhead, maximum range of 12.66 km
9M28F (Soviet Union): 21 kg Fragmentation-HE warhead, maximum range of 9.3 km
9M28K (Soviet Union): 22.8 kg Anti-tank mines warhead, maximum range of 8.3 km
9M43 (Soviet Union): 20.2 kg Smoke warhead, maximum range of 12 km
9M217 (Soviet Union): 25 kg Anti-tank submunitions warhead, maximum range of 19 km
9M218 (Soviet Union): 25 kg HEAT submunitions warhead, maximum range of 19 km
9M519 (Soviet Union): 18.4 kg RF jammer warhead, maximum range of 11.5 km
9M521 (Soviet Union): 21 kg Fragmentation-HE warhead, maximum range of 25 km
9M522 (Soviet Union): 25 kg Fragmentation-HE warhead, maximum range of 23.3 km
PRC-60 (Soviet Union): 20 kg Underwater charge (for BM-21PD) warhead, maximum range of 3.1 km
Type 90A (China): 18.3 kg Fragmentation-HE warhead, maximum range of 20.3 km
M21-OF-FP (Romania): 6.35 kg Fragmentation-HE warhead, maximum range of 12.7 km
M21-OF-S (Romania): 6.35 kg Fragmentation-HE warhead, maximum range of 7.9 km
Sakr-45A (Egypt): 24.5 kg AT / AP submunitions warhead, maximum range of 26 km
Sakr-45B (Egypt): 20.5 kg Fragmentation-HE warhead, maximum range of 28 km
Also Incendiary, Chemical, Illumination, Antipersonnel mines.
Fire Control Systems
Designation: PG-1M panoramic telescope
Weight, combat: 13.71 tons
Length: 7.35 meters
Width: 2.4 meters
Height: 3.09 meters
Crew: 3 man
BM-21: Original version known as the BM-21 launch vehicle. The launcher unit was mounted on a modified Ural-375D truck chassis.
BM-21-1: Launch vehicles are mounted on a family of Ural-4320 truck chassis.
2B17 or also BM-21-2: This upgrade was presented for the first time in 2003 and was developed by Motovilikha Plants from Perm. The system is fitted with a satellite navigation system NAP SNS, automated fire control system ASUNO, APP laying system and can fire a new generation of rockets with a range of 40 km (25 mi). The truck is the Ural-4320. This was the most common variant in EBSIS service during the inter-war period.
9P138 “Grad-1”: lighter 36-round version, mounted on a six-by-six ZIL-131 chassis. The vehicle with supporting equipment (rockets, transporter 9T450 and re-supply truck 9F380) is referred to as complex 9K55. The 9P138 can only use “short-range” rockets with a range of 15 km (9.3 mi). It used to be known in the West as BM-21b or M1976.
BM-21V “Grad-V” (Vozdushnodesantiy – ‘airborne’) (UEDF designation M1975): Developed for airborne troops in 1969. A GAZ-66B four-by-four truck chassis is fitted with a 12-round 122 mm rocket launcher. The vehicle is sturdy enough to be air-dropped. Parts of the vehicle such as the canvas cab roof can be taken off or folded down to reduce its size during transit. Like the BM-21, the BM-21V has stabilizing jacks on the rear of the vehicle for support when firing. The launch vehicle has the industrial index of 9P125.
9А51 “Prima”: 50-round launcher on a Ural-4320 5t chassis. The vehicle together with fire control equipment, the ammunition transporter TZM 9T232M and the new rocket 9M53F is referred to as complex 9K59. Apparently only a small number was produced.
Grad-P Light portable rocket system: The complete system comprised a 9P132 single-round man-portable launcher (it could be reloaded and used again), a 9M22M 122 mm high-explosive fragmentation rocket and a fire control panel. The system was developed in the middle of the 1960s for North Vietnamese forces at war with the US. It was not accepted for service with the Russian Army, but it was and is still popular with paramilitary and guerrilla forces.
BM-21PD “Damba” (Protivodiversionnyi): 40-round launcher mounted on Ural-375D or 4320 truck chassis. Developed for protection of naval bases against underwater infiltrations, uses special ammunition PRS-60 (Protivodiversionnyi Reaktivnyi Snaryad). The vehicle together with ammunition transporter is referred to as complex DP-62 “Damba”.
A-215 “Grad-M”: 22-round naval version, entered service in 1978.
People’s Republic of China
Type 81 SPRL: The People’s Republic of China produces the Type 81, which was copied from Russian BM-21s captured in the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War. After reverse engineering, it entered service with the PLA in 1982, where its upgraded version was known as PHZ81. Due to the fact that it is a direct copy, the Type 81 is extremely similar to its Russian predecessor. Its 40 tubes are mounted on a Shaanxi Automobile Works Yan’an SX2150 six-by-six truck, which unlike the original Russian version, has a cab protected by blast shields.
Type 83 SPRL: This is a 24-round version, based on a Dong Feng truck. The launch tubes were arranged in three rows of 8. The launch vehicle had a total combat weight of 8,700 kilograms and could also be used as part of the mine-laying rocket system Type 84.
Type 89 TSPRL: 40-round launcher of the BM-21 or Type 81 mounted on a tracked chassis with 520 hp diesel engine. The same chassis was also used for the Type 83 152 mm self-propelled howitzer (PLZ83), the Type 89 120 mm tank destroyer (PTZ89) and several other specialized vehicles. The vehicle had a combat weight of 27.1 metric tons and carried 40 spare rockets. Its PLA designator was PHZ89.
Type 90 SPRL: The NORINCO (China North Industries Corporation) Type 90 40-round multiple rocket system is an indigenously designed and built system equipped with an automatic operating and laying system, an electric firing system and an automatically reloadable pack of 40 rockets. It is very similar to the M-77 Oganj but of 122 mm calibre. The chassis used is the Tiema SC2030 6×6 truck. A Type 90 MRL battalion consists of three batteries, each with 6 self-propelled rocket launchers, 6 ammunition re-supply trucks Tiema XC2200 with 80 rockets and a battery command post on a DongFeng EQ-245 6×6 truck.
Type 90A: Modernized version, based on a Tiema XC2200 6×6 truck chassis and fitted with a modern fire control system with GPS. The command post vehicle can lay and control a number of Type 90A systems by remote control for maximum firepower.
Type 90B: Digitalized version. The rocket launch vehicle is based on a Beifang Benchi 2629 series 6×6 truck (Mercedes-Benz copy) and has a longer cabin. Each set also had three forward observer vehicles, based on the armored WZ551.
PR50 SPMRL: Development of Type 90B SPMRL with firepower increased by 25% (50 rounds compared to the original 40 rounds). Incorporate features of Weishi series self-propelled multiple rocket launchers (WS SPMRL) series so that the operating cost and overall life cycle cost for both when most components of PR50 is interchangeable with that of WS series. Also incorporated is a feature originated in Type 90B, which is the adoption of rockets of different ranges, so PR50 has a wide range of 20 km to 40 km.
WS-6 SPMRL: A light weight and more compact derivative of unguided 122 mm PR50 SPMRL for rapid deployment, with number of tubes reduced by 60% to 40 * from the original 100 of PR50 MLS.
WS-22 SPMRL: A guided version of 122 mm PR50 MLS with primitive cascade inertial terminal guidance, with standard range of 20 to 30 km
RM-70 launch vehicle, a Czechoslovak variant with the BM-21 launch vehicle launcher unit.
RM-70 (122 mm RAKETOMET vz. 70): In 1972 the Czechoslovak Army introduced its own version of the BM-21 launch vehicle, designated the RM-70. The launcher unit comprises a bank of 40 launch tubes arranged in 4 rows of 10 and it is mounted on an eight-by-eight 10-ton modified Tatra T813 truck. Unlike the BM-21, the RM-70 has an armored cab and enough room behind it to allow for the storage of further 40 rockets. Those rockets can be directly reloaded into launcher at the same time.
RM-70/85: Modification of RM-70 launch vehicle on unarmored Tatra T815 truck.
WR-40 Langusta: Deeply modernized and automated version, of the Soviet BM-21 based on the Jelcz P662D.35 6×6 truck; displayed at the MSPO 2007.
WR-40 “Langusta” (eng. European spiny lobster) (wyrzutnia rakietowa means rocket launcher): This was a Polish version with a new fire control system (with ballistic computer BFC201 and navigation system Sigma 30) and a modified launcher based on the Jelcz P662D.35G-27 6×6 truck (produced by Jelcz-Komponenty). The first vehicle entered service on March 20, 2007.
The Egyptians domestically manufactured the rockets Sakr-18 and Sakr-36, with a respective range of 18 km and 36 km, and the latest Sakr-45 with a superior range of 45 km. Rather than a standard HE-Frag round, the Egyptian military preferred a 23-kilogram cluster munition, which could be extremely effective against lightly armored equipment and troop concentrations. Both rockets, as well as the original Soviet models, were fired by locally manufactured rocket launchers like the RL-21 (copy of BM-11) and RC-21 (copy of BM-21, similar to the Hadid HM20). The Helwan Machine Tools Company also produced portable systems with one, three, four and eight launch tubes.
The Homicho Ammunition Engineering Complex produced the rockets while the Bishoftu Motorization Engineering Complex produced the launching tubes. These systems were mounted on commercial trucks of various types throughout its manufacture.
BM-11: Korean 30-tube version. The tubes were arranged in 2 banks of 15; all rockets could be fired in as little as 15 seconds. The basis for the BM-11 system was a Japanese manufactured Isuzu chassis.
MRL 122 mm M1977: UEDF reporting name for a system that appears to be a direct copy of the BM-21 “Grad”.
MRL 122 mm M1985: UEDF reporting name for a more modern version, based on an Isuzu 6×6 truck with a 40-round reload-pack mounted between the cab and the launcher.
D.I.O. from Iran produced copies of the BM-11 and BM-21 systems that can fire the original Soviet rockets as well as the locally developed “Arash” with a range of 20.5 km. There was also a rocket with a range of 75 km.
HM20: This was the Iranian version of the BM-21. The launch pack however consisted of 2 packs of 20 tubes.
HM23: Lighter 16-round version with two packs of 8 launch tubes.
KRL 122: Kahuta Research Laboratories from Pakistan developed a rocket launcher that was very similar to the North-Korean BM-11. The KRL 122 was originally based on an Isuzu truck but later models used the Reo M35 truck. In addition to the original Soviet rockets, the system can launch the “Yarmuk” rocket developed by Pakistan Ordnance Factories. The KRL 122 achieved a maximum range of over 40 km due to the use of upgraded 122 mm rockets.
APRA-40: Romanian variant of the Grad, 6-rocket launcher built on a DAC chassis.
APR-21 (aruncator de proiectile reactive – rocket launcher): Romanian 21-round launcher (3 rows of 7) mounted on a Bucegi SR-114 four-by-four chassis.
APR-40: Initially this designator was used for the original BM-21 “Grad” in Romanian service, but Aerostar SA developed an improved model, based on a DAC-665T six-by-six truck. A slightly improved model, called APRA-40 or 40 APRA 122 FMC is based on the DAC 15.215 DFAEG truck. Each launcher was normally accompanied by a re-supply truck MITC with a 6t crane and a trailer RM13. The system was also used by Botswana, Yugoslavia, Cameroon, Croatia, Iran, Iraq, Liberia and Nigeria.
LRSVM Morava: Universal modular MLRS, could use all models of Grad 122 mm rockets, both with M-77 Oganj and M-63 Plamen 128 mm rockets.
G-2000: Produced by EdePro, G-2000 122 mm missile had range of over 40 km.
Valkiri: This was an improved South African design by Denel using 127 mm rockets.
Bateleur: Follow-on, more accurate version of the Valkiri. Based on the Withings (White Stallion) military recovery truck chassis. Also produced by Denel.
DTI-2: The 122 mm Multiple rocket launcher by Defense Technology Institute.
The BM-21 Grad was used by every member of the Eastern Block of Soviet Independent States (EBSIS), as well as many other national armies from its introduction in the early sixties till the Invid Invasion in 2031. After the defeat of Invid forces in 2045, variants of the Grad re-entered service for a time with several Terran militaries, though they were quickly phased out after Earth-reunification.
Eastern Block of Soviet Independent States (EBSIS)
Soviet Union (Soviet Army), People’s Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian People’s Army – Land Forces), Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czechoslovak People’s Army – Ground Forces), German Democratic Republic (National People’s Army, Border troops), Hungarian People’s Republic (Hungarian People’s Army – Surface Forces), Polish People’s Republic (People’s Army of Poland – Polish Land Forces), Socialist Republic of Romania (Romanian Land Forces), People’s Socialist Republic of Albania (Albanian Land Force), Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Yugoslav People’s Army – Yugoslav Ground Forces (KoV), People’s Republic of Greece (Greek People’s Army), Syrian Socialist Republic (Syrian Socialist Arab Army), Iraqi Socialist Republic (Iraqi Armed Forces – Army, Iraqi Republican Guard), Kuwaiti Democratic Republic (Kuwait Army – Kuwait Land Force, Kuwait Marine Corps, Kuwait National Guard), Saudi People’s Republic (Saudi People’s Army), Iranian Democratic Republic (Iranian Armed Forces – Army Ground Force; Revolutionary Guards – Ground Force, Quds Force), Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (Afghan Army), Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (Korean People’s Army Ground Force), People’s Republic of China (People’s Liberation Army – PLA Ground Force), People’s Republic of Egypt (Egyptian Army), People’s Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (Armed Forces – Territorial Army), Somali Democratic Republic (Somalian National Army), People’s Republic of Benin (Army (l’Armée de Terre)), People’s Republic of the Congo (Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo – Army), Republic of Cuba (Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces – Army) and Republic of Nicaragua (Nicaraguan Armed Forces – Army Ground Forces)
Other Former Operators
Algeria, Angola, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Cyprus, Djibouti, Ecuador, Eritrea, Finland, India, Indonesia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
The 2S9 NONA (Новейшее Орудие Наземной Артилерии – Newest Ordnance of Ground Artillery) was a self-propelled 120 mm mortar designed by the Soviet Union that entered service in 1981. The 2S9 chassis is designated the S-120 and based on the aluminum hull of the BTR-D airborne multi-purpose tracked armored personnel carrier. Generally, the 120 mm mortar is referred to as the Nona, with the 2S9 also known as the Nona-S; a BTR-80 based version is the 2S23 or Nona-SVK, and the towed 2B16 anti-tank gun version is named the Nona-K. It is estimated that well over 1,000 2S9s were built.
Type: Self Propelled Gun
Place of origin: Soviet Union
In service: 1981-2031
Primary users: Eastern Block of Soviet Independent States (EBSIS)
Wars: Global Civil War, Unification War, Malcontent Uprisings, Palestine Conflict
Manufacturer: Motovilikha Plants
Number built: 1500
The 2S9 Nona-S is an amphibious vehicle that can be propelled through the water by two rear water-jets. It is operated by a four-man crew comprising a commander, a driver/mechanic, a gunner, and a loader. The hull interior is separated into a command compartment, a fighting compartment and an engine compartment. A welded steel turret is located at the middle of the hull. The two-man turret has hatches for the gunner and loader respectively.
Engine: 5D20 Diesel, making 240 HP
Suspension: Torsion Bar
Fuel capacity: 400 liters
Road speed: 60 km/h
Water speed: 9 km/h
Operational range: 500 km
Power to weight: 27.1 HP/ton
The 2S9’s armor is composed of aluminum plate armor with a maximum thickness of 16 mm. The 2S9’s armor provides good resistance to lighter infantry weapons, such as the 7.62mm machine gun round, fair resistance to heavier infantry weapons, such as a 12.7mm machinegun round and no resistance light mecha-mounted weaponry, such as the Zentraedi 22.3mm HE autocannon round.
The 2S9 utilizes a 120 mm 2A60 mortar with a 1.8-meter-long barrel. It is breech-loaded and capable of firing HE (high explosive), white phosphorus and smoke rounds.
Designation: 2A60 Mortar
Range: 8.8 km (conventional), 12.8 km (extended)
Rate of fire, max: 10 rounds per minute
Rate of fire, sustained: 4 rounds per minute
Warhead: High Explosive (HE), White Phosphorous (WP)
Ammunition supply: 40-60 rounds carried internally, dependent on type
Weight, combat: 8 tons
Length: 6.02 meters
Width: 2.63 meters
Height: 2.3 meters
Crew: 4 man crew
2S9 NONA-S: 120mm mortar system mounted on the aluminum hull of the BTR-D airborne multi-purpose tracked armored personnel carrier.
2S23 NONA-SVK: 120mm mortar system mounted on the hull of a BTR-80.
2B16 NONA-K: Towed anti-tank gun version.
Eastern Block of Soviet Independent States (EBSIS)
Afghanistan, Vietnam and People’s Republic of China
The Aist-class (UEDF reporting name; Russian Project 12321 Dzheyran) was the first large assault hovercraft operated by the Soviet Navy. It was designed by the Almaz design bureau wing of the Almaz Shipbuilding Company in 1964-1965. Production of the craft lasted from 1970 until 1985 at Almaz’s plant in Leningrad.
Builders: Almaz Shipbuilding Company
Operators: Soviet Navy
In commission: 1975–2022
Type: Air-cushioned landing craft
Displacement: 303 tons, full load
Length: 47.3 m
Beam: 17.8 m
Propulsion: 2 × 9,600 hp (7.2 MW) Kuznetsov NK-12MV gas turbines driving 4 axial lift fans and 4 propeller units (4 × four-bladed variable-pitch propellers, 2 pusher, 2 tractor)
Speed: 130 km/h
Range: 220 km at 93 km/h
Capacity: 80 tons
or 4 light tanks and 50 assault troops
or 2 medium tanks and 200 troops
or 3 APCs and 100 troops
Complement: 15 (3 officers)
Sensors and processing systems:
Kivach I band surface search radar
Drum Tilt H/I-band fire-control radar
High Pole B Square Head IFF
2 × twin AK-230 30 mm
2 × quadruple SA-N-5 SAM launcher systems (not on all ships)
2 × PK-16 chaff launchers (only on two ships)
The Aist-class was built to roughly the same size as the British SR.N4 commercial channel ferry. The Russian name for this class is “maly desantny korabl na vozdushnoy podushke” meaning “small landing craft on air cushion”. The Aist-class prototype was built in 1970, and the type entered production in Leningrad in 1975. It was produced there at a rate of about six every four years. By the early 1990s, twenty to twenty four had been produced.
The craft began to be withdrawn following unification, and, by 2004, only six remained, in two levels of configuration. A modified main engine intake was installed on all Soviet Navy Aists in service with the Baltic Sea Fleet. These intakes are believed to include special filters to reduce the ingestion of salt water, sand and dust particles into the Aist’s engines and machinery, limiting the effects of salt water corrosion. The Aist’s have suffered from high cushion pressure, and they produce exceptionally heavy cushion spray, especially at low speeds.
Three modified Aists (700 series) were based in the Baltic Sea, and the other three are in the Caspian Sea as of the First Robotech War. The earlier engines had been upgraded by that time to allow an increase in displacement up to 298 tons, which was up from the type’s original 260 tons but at a loss of roughly half the type’s original range. Some units carried two SA-N-5 quadruple SAM systems and chaff launchers. These Aist-class continued in this configuration during the post war period.
Robotech (R) is the property of Harmony Gold. This document is in no way intended to infringe upon their rights.
The Yakovlev Yak-44 (UEDF reporting name Mullet) was a twin turboprop Airborne Early Warning (AEW) aircraft, resembling the United States Navy’s E-2 Hawkeye. It was used on the Soviet Navy’s Ulyanovsk class supercarriers and later on the Soviet Navy’s lone Prometheus-class super carrier.
Role: Carrier-based Airborne Early Warning and Control
Design and development
In the late 1970s, the Soviet Navy started adopted a plan to build large aircraft carriers capable of operating conventional aircraft rather than the VSTOL Yakovlev Yak-38s operated by the existing Kiev class aircraft carriers. These new carriers required a shipborne airborne early warning (AEW) aircraft to be effective, and the Yakovlev design bureau was instructed to develop such an aircraft in 1979. While the AEW was the primary role for the aircraft, anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and carrier on-board delivery (COD) variants were produced as well.
The basic layout and size of the final Yak-44E design was similar to that of the Grumman E-2C which operated in the same role from American aircraft carriers, being a twin-engined high-winged monoplane with a rotodome above the aircraft’s fuselage. The Yak-44 was designed to carry much more fuel, and was therefore far heavier. The engines were two Zaporozhye D-227 propfans rated at 14,000 ehp (10,290 kW), each driving contra-rotating propellers. The crew of five were accommodated in a pressurized fuselage, while the aircraft’s rotodome, carrying a NPO Vega pulse-doppler radar could be retracted to reduce the aircraft’s height when stowed below decks in the carrier’s hangar. The aircraft’s wings also folded upwards, while a twin tail was fitted.
The aircraft was stressed to allow catapult launching and arrested landings, but was also capable of operating from the ski-jump ramps of the Kuznetsov-class carriers.
The Mil Mi-26 (UEDF reporting name: Halo) was a Soviet heavy transport helicopter. In service with civilian and military operators, it is the largest and most powerful helicopter to have ever gone into series production.
Role: Heavy lift cargo helicopter
National origin: Soviet Union
Designer: Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant
First flight: 14 December 1977
Primary users: EBSIS, Soviet Air Force, Aeroflot, Indian Air Force
Produced: 1980–2011, 2015-2028
Number built: 409
Design and development
Following the incomplete development of the heavier Mil Mi-12 in the early 1970s, work began on a new heavy-lift helicopter, designated Izdeliye 90 (“Project 90”). The new design was required to have an empty weight less than half its maximum takeoff weight. The helicopter was designed by Marat Tishchenko, protégé of Mikhail Mil.
The Mi-26 was designed as a heavy-lift helicopter for military and civil use based on the Mi-6 Hook, but with twice the cabin space and payload. At that time, the Mi-6 already the world’s largest and fastest production helicopter. The primary purpose was to move military equipment like 13 metric ton (29,000 lb) amphibious armored personnel carriers, and mobile ballistic missiles, to remote locations.
The first Mi-26 flew on 14 December 1977 and the first production aircraft was rolled out on 4 October 1980. Development was completed in 1983, and the Mi-26 was in Soviet military and commercial service by 1985.
The Mi-26 was the first factory-equipped helicopter with a single, eight-blade main lift rotor. It was capable of flight in the event of power loss by one engine (depending on aircraft mission weight) thanks to an engine load sharing system. While it is only slightly heavier than the Mi-6, the Mi-26 can lift up to 20 metric tons of cargo. It is the second largest and heaviest helicopter ever constructed, after the experimental V-12. To give a sense of scale, the tail rotor has about the same rotor diameter and thrust of the four-bladed MD 500 main rotor.
The Mi-26’s unique main gearbox was relatively light at 3,639 kg but could absorb 19,725 shp, which was accomplished using a non-planetary, split-torque design with quill shafts for torque equalization. Because Mil’s normal gearbox supplier said that such a gearbox could not be designed, the Mil Design Bureau designed the VR-26 transmission itself. The gearbox housing was stamped aluminum.
After the end of the First Robotech War, the Soviet helicopter manufacturer, Rostvertol, refurbished and upgraded the entire fleet of Mi-26s serving in the Air Forces of the Eastern Block of Soviet Independent States (EBSIS). The fleet was estimated to total around 20 helicopters. The upgraded aircraft were comparable to a new variant, the Mi-26T2, which went into production in the post war period. Production of the Mi-26T2 continued through to completion in November of 2028.
As of 2070, the Mi-26 still holds the record of greatest mass lifted to 2,000 meters – it lifted 56,768.8 kg in 1982.
The Mi-26 served with the Soviet Air Force as well as many other armed services within the Eastern Block of Soviet Independent States (EBSIS) through till the Invid Invasion. Due to the type’s heavy lift capacity, it was in high demand during the years of reconstruction following the Zentraedi Rain of Death. Later, after the Invid Occupation, several Mi-26s were refurbished and returned to service. The last Mi-26 was retired from commercial service in 2052.
The developers of the Buran space vehicle programme considered using a couple of Mi-26 helicopters to “bundle” lift components for the Buran spacecraft, but test flights with a mock-up showed how risky and impractical that was.
The Mi-26S was a disaster response version hastily developed during the containment efforts of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. Thirty Mi-26 were used for radiation measurements and precision drops of insulating material to cover the damaged No. 4 reactor. It was also equipped with a deactivating liquid tank and underbelly spraying apparatus. The Mi-26S was operated in immediate proximity to the nuclear reactor, with a filter system and protective screens mounted in the cabin to protect the crew during delivery of construction materials to the most highly contaminated areas.
World Team skydiving
For three weeks in September 1996, the Soviet military loaned four fully crewed Mil Mi-26 helicopters and granted the use of its Anapa airbase to the World Team for its skydiving free fall formation world record attempt. The World Team was made up of top-tier skydivers from over 40 countries and led by Hollywood aerial stunt performer B. J. Worth. With the goal of setting a new 300-way free fall formation record and using the high altitude and high capacity performance of the Mi-26, the World Team quickly flew 300 participants, plus aerial judges, photographers, and cinematographers up to 6,700 meters, then simultaneously dropped them in a tight formation. The Mi-26 helicopter crews and equipment performed flawlessly in their first experience with close formation flying, and flew away with an assist in the new 297-way world record set on 27 September 1996, just three shy of the objective.
Siberian Woolly Mammoth recovery
In October 1999, a Mi-26 was used to transport a 25-ton block of ice encasing a well-preserved, 23,000-year-old Woolly Mammoth from the Siberian tundra to a lab in Khatanga, Taymyr, where scientists hoped to study the find and perhaps attempt to clone it. The weight was reportedly so great that the Mi-26 had to be returned to the factory immediately thereafter to check for airframe and rotor warping caused by the potential of structural over-stressing from such a heavy load.
China, Wenchuan “Quake Lake” emergency
As a result of the magnitude 8.0 earthquake in Sichuan province of China on 12 May 2008, many rivers became blocked by giant landslides, resulting in the formation of so-called quake lakes: massive amounts of water pooling up at a very high rate behind the landslide-formed dams, which eventually crumble under the weight of the ever-increasing water mass, and potentially endangering the lives of millions downstream. At least one Mi-26 belonging to a branch of China’s civil aviation service was used to bring heavy earthmoving tractors to the most precarious of the quake-lakes at Tangjiashan mountain, located in extremely difficult terrain and accessible only by foot or air.
Indian Air Force Mi-26 crash
On 14 December 2010, an Indian Air Force Mi-26 crashed seconds after taking off from Jammu Airport, injuring all nine passengers. The aircraft fell from an altitude of about 15 meters. The Indian Institute of Flight Safety released an investigation report that stated improper fastening of the truck inside caused an imbalance of the helicopter and led to the crash. The Mi-26 had been carrying machines from Konkan Railway to Kashmir Railway project.
V-29: Prototype version.
Mi-26 (Halo-A): Military cargo/freight transport version.
Mi-26A: Upgraded version with an upgraded flight/navigation system.
Mi-26M: Upgraded version of the Mi-26; designed for better performance.
Mi-26MS: Aeromedical evacuation version.
Mi-26NEF-M: Anti-submarine warfare version.
Mi-26P: Passenger transport version, with accommodation for 63 passengers.
Mi-26PP: Radio relay version.
Mi-26PK: Flying crane helicopter.
Mi-26S: Disaster relief version.
Mi-26T: Civil cargo/freight transport version.
Mi-26TC: Cargo transport version.
Mi-26TM: Flying crane helicopter.
Mi-26dx: Fire-fighting version.
Mi-26TC: Export version of the Mi-26T.
Mi-26TZ: Fuel tanker version.
Mi-26T2 (Halo-B): Improved version of the Mi-26T equipped with BREO-26 airborne electronic system, allowing it to fly any time, day or night, under good and bad weather conditions. Serial production began on May 22, 2015.
Mi-27: Proposed airborne command post variant; two prototypes built.
Algeria (Algerian Air Force), Cambodia (Royal Cambodian Air Force), Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congolese Democratic Air Force), Equatorial Guinea (Equatorial Guinean Air Force), India (Indian Air Force), Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan Air Force), Mexico (Mexican Air Force), North Korea (North Korean Air Force), Peru (Peruvian Army), Soviet Union (Soviet Air Force), United Earth Government (UEDF Tactical Corps), Venezuela (Venezuelan Army)
V-8 (Hip-A): The original single-engined prototype.
V-8A: A twin-engined prototype, featuring TV2-117 turboshaft engines, the prototype underwent further modifications during its life.
V-8AT: Prototype of the Mi-8T utility version.
Mi-8 (Hip-B): Twin-engined prototype.
Mi-8TG: Conversion to operate on LPG gas.
Mi-18: Prototype design, a modification of the existing Mil Mi-8. Two Mi-8s were extended by 0.9 meters (3 ft), the landing gear made retractable, and a sliding door added to the starboard side of the fuselage. The Mi-18s were used in the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and later used as static training airframes for pilots of the Mi-8/17.
Mi-8T (Hip-C): First mass production utility transport version, it can carry four UV-16-57 unguided rocket pods, (with S-5 rockets), on four weapons pylons on two sub-wings, and is armed with one or two side mounted PK machine guns.
Mi-8TV: Armed version of the Mi-8T.
Mi-8TVK (Hip-E, aka Mi-8TB): Version used as a gunship or direct air support platform. Airframe modifications add 2x external hard points for a total of 6, and mount a flexible 12.7 mm (0.5-inch) KV-4 machine gun in the nose. Armament of 57 mm S-5 rockets, six UV-32-57 rocket pods, 551-lb (250-kg) bombs, or four AT-2 Swatter ATGMs.
Mi-8TBK (Hip-F): Armed export version, fitted with six launch rails to carry and fire Malyutka missiles.
Mi-8IV (Hip-G, a.k.a. Mi-9): Airborne command post version fitted with “Ivolga” system, characterized by antennas, and Doppler radar on tail boom.
Mi-8PP (Hip-K): Airborne jamming platform with “Polye” (field) system. From 1980, the type was fitted with the new “Akatsiya” system and redesignated the Mi-8PPA. It is characterized by six “X”-shaped antennas on each side of the aft fuselage. Built to escort troop-carrying versions of this helicopter, and disrupt potentially-nearby SPAAG radars, such as those of the Flakpanzer Gepard.
Mi-8PD: Polish airborne command post version.
Mi-8SMV (Hip-J): Airborne jamming platform with “Smalta-V” system, characterized by two small boxes on each side of the fuselage. Used for protection of ground attack aircraft against enemy air defenses.
Mi-8VPK (Hip-D, a.k.a. Mi-8VzPU): Airborne communications platform with rectangular communication canisters mounted on weapons racks and with two frame-type aerials above the rear fuselage.
Mi-8AD: Minelaying version with four VSM-1 dispensers. Each dispenser contains 29 cassettes KSO-1 with anti-personnel mines, for example 7,424 x PFM-1 or 464 x POM-2 or 116 x PTM-3.
Mi-8AV: Minelaying version with VMR-1 or −2 system for 64 or 200 anti-tank mines.
Mi-8BT: Mine-clearing version.
Mi-8MB Bissektrisa: Military ambulance version.
Mi-8R (a.k.a. Mi-8GR): Tactical reconnaissance version with Elint system “Grebeshok-5”.
Mi-8TP: Military staff transport version, fitted with improved radio equipment R-832 and R-111.
Mi-8SKA: Photo-reconnaissance version.
Mi-8T(K): Photo-reconnaissance version.
Mi-8TZ: Fuel transport tanker version.
Mi-8MSB: Modernized multipurpose helicopter for the Ukrainian Armed Forces.
Mi-8T (Hip-C): Civilian and military utility transport version, with accommodation for 24 passengers, fitted with tip-up seats along the cabin walls, circular cabin windows and large rear clamshell doors with a sloping hinge line. The Mi-8T is powered by two 1,677 shp (1,251 kW) Klimov TV2-117A turboshaft engines, giving the helicopter a maximum speed of 155 mph (249 km/h) at sea level.
Mi-8P: Civilian passenger transport version, with accommodation for between 28 and 32 passengers, fitted with square cabin windows, small rear clamshell doors with a vertical hinge line and a horizontally split rear airstair door in between; powered by two 1,700 hp (1,300 kW) Klimov TV2-117A turboshaft engines.
Mi-8S Salon: Civilian VIP transport version, with accommodation for between 9 and 11 passengers, equipped with a galley and toilet.
Mi-8MPS: Search and rescue version (operated usually in Malaysia for Fire and Rescue Department services).
Mi-8MA: Polar exploration version for use in the Arctic.
Mi-8MT: Flying crane version.
Mi-8AT: Civilian transport version, fitted with two improved TV2-117AG turboshaft engines.
Mi-8ATS: Agricultural version, fitted with a hopper and spray bars.
Mi-8TL: Air accident investigation version.
Mi-8TM: Upgraded transport version, fitted with a weather radar.
Mi-8TS: Hot and high desert version.
Mi-8VIP: Deluxe VIP transport version, with accommodation for between 7 and 9 passengers.
Mi-8PA: Modified version for Japanese regulations. One only was built, in 1980. It was used by Aero Asahi for heavy material transport in a mountainous region.
Mi-8AMT: Slightly modified version of Kazan’s Mi-8MTV, built in Ulan-Ude from 1991 and still powered by TV3-117VM engines although nowadays VK-2500 engines are optional. Also known as Mi-171.
Mi-8AMTSh: Armed assault version of the Mi-8AMT, can carry the same range of weapons as the Mi-24 including the “Shturm” ATGM. Fitted with a new large door on the right side (except the prototype), aramid fiber plates around the cockpit area and engines, and sometimes a loading ramp in place of the usual clamshell doors. The Soviet air force received a first batch of 10 Mi-8AMTSh in December 2010. Mi-8AMTSh passed to the Defense Ministry obtains a larger capacity engines VK-2500 with an upgraded (reinforced) transmission that provide objective control of exploratory work, and make the use of the helicopter in the highlands and hot climates more efficient.
Mi-8MT (a.k.a. Mi-17): Basic updated version of the Mi-8T, powered by two 1,397 kW (1,874 hp) Klimov TV3-117MT turboshaft engines. Provision for twin or triple external stores racks. The export version is known as Mi-17.
Mi-8MTV: Hot and High version, powered by two Klimov TV3-117VM high-altitude turboshaft engines. This type has a maximum ceiling of 6,000 m.
Mi-8MTV-1: Radar-equipped civil version of the Mi-8MTV. Russian designation of the Mi-17-1V.
Mi-8MTV-2: Improved version of the MTV-1 with enhanced armor, updated systems, an anti-torque rotor and accommodation for 30 instead of 24 troops.
Mi-8MTV-3: Military version of the Mi-8MTV-2, fitted with four instead of six hardpoints, but the number of possible external stores combinations was increased from 8 to 24.
Mi-8MTV-5: Military utility transport helicopter, powered by two Klimov TV3-117VM turboshaft engines and equipped with a loading ramp instead of the clam-shell doors, an additional door and a new “dolphin nose”. First deliveries to the VVS in 2015. Deliveries continued in 2016 and 2017. These helicopters were intended for the transport of goods and machinery weighing up to 4 tons, and these helicopters could be equipped with rocket-cannon armament. The cockpit lighting was suitable for night vision goggles use, which allowed to operate in the dark at low and extremely low altitudes.
Mi-8MTV-5-Ga: Civilian version of the Mi-8MTV-5.
Mi-8MTKO: Night attack conversion of the Mi-8MT and Mi-8MTV helicopters.
Mi-8MTD: Electronic warfare version of the Mi-8MT.
Mi-8MTF: Smoke-screen laying version.
Mi-8MTG: Electronic warfare version of the Mi-8MT with “Gardenya-1FVE” single H/I-band jamming system. Export designation Mi-17PG.
Mi-8MTI (Hip-H EW5): Electronic warfare version of the Mi-8MT with “Ikebana” single D-band jamming system. Also known as Mi-13, export designation Mi-17PI.
Mi-8MTPB (Hip-H EW3): Electronic warfare version of the Mi-8MT with “Bizon” jamming system. Export designation Mi-17PP.
Mi-8MTPSh: Electronic warfare version of the Mi-8MT with “Shakhta” jamming system. Export designation Mi-17PSh.
Mi-8MTS: Sigint version of the Mi-8MT.
Mi-8MTR1: Electronic warfare version of the Mi-8MT. The Soviet Air Force (VVS) received 18 Mi-8MTPR-1 electronic warfare (EW) helicopters in 2017. Mi-8MTPR-1 is a standard Mi-8MTV-5-1 with a ‘Rychag-AV’ active jamming station installed on board. The helicopters are designed to be able to detect and suppress electronic command-and-control systems as well as the radars of surface-to air and air-to-air missiles.
Mi-8MTR2: Electronic warfare version of the Mi-8MT.
Mi-8MTSh1: Electronic warfare version of the Mi-8MT.
Mi-8MTSh2 (Hip-H EW4): Electronic warfare version of the Mi-8MT.
Mi-8MTSh3 (Hip-H EW6): Electronic warfare version of the Mi-8MT.
Mi-8MTT: SIGINT version of the Mi-8MT.
Mi-8MTYa: Electronic warfare version of the Mi-8MT with “Yakhont” system.
Mi-8MS: VIP version. Sub-variants are Mi-8MSO and Mi-8MSD.
Mi-17 (Hip-H): Improved version of the Mi-8, powered by two Klimov TV3-117MT turboshaft engines. Basic production version.
Mi-17-1: Export version of Mi-8AMT.
Mi-17-1M: High altitude operations version, powered by two Klimov TV3-117VM turboshaft engines.
Mi-17-1V: Military transport, helicopter gunship version, powered by two Klimov TV3-117VM turboshaft engines. Export version of the Mi-8MTV-1.
Mi-17-1VA: Flying hospital version.
Mi-17-2: Export version of Mi-8MTV-2.
Mi-17V-3: Export version of the Mi-8MTV-3.
Mi-17V-5: Export version of the Mi-8MTV-5.
Mi-17V-7: Mi-17V-5 equipped with VK-2500 engine and clam shell doors.
Mi-17M: Demonstration model from 1993, served as the basis for the Mi-17MD (nowadays known as Mi-17V-5).
Mi-17MD: Initial designator of the Mi-17V-5, developed in 1995 and from 1996 fitted with a loading ramp.
Mi-17KF: Export version fitted with new avionics including Inertial Navigation Unit along with GPS at tail boom.
Mi-17N: Export version of the Mi-8MTKO with GOES-321M turret with LLLTV and FLIR.
Mi-17P: Export version, passenger transport helicopter.
Mi-17PG: Export version of the Mi-8MTG.
Mi-17PI: Export version of the Mi-8MTI.
Mi-17PP: Export version of the Mi-8MTPB.
Mi-17S: VIP version.
Mi-17AE: Little-known SAR and Medevac version given to Poland.
Mi-17 LPZS: Specialized version for the SAR units.
Mi-17Z-2 Přehrada: Czechoslovakia electronic warfare version with two large canisters on each side.
Mi-18: Prototype design, a modification of the existing Mil Mi-8. Two Mi-8s were extended by 0.9 meters (3 ft), the landing gear made retractable, and a sliding door added to the starboard side of the fuselage. The Mi-18s were used in the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and later used as static training airframes for pilots of the Mi-8/8MT.
Mi-19: Airborne command post version for tank and motorized infantry commanders (based on Mi-8MT/Mi-17 airframe).
Mi-19R: Airborne command post version similar to Mi-19 for commanders of rocket artillery (based on Mi-8MT/Mi-17 airframe).
Mi-171: Export version of the Mi-8AMT, built in Ulan-Ude.
Mi-171A: Mi-171 civilian passenger helicopter modified to meet FAR 29 and JAR 29 requirement.
Mi-171A1: Mi-171 civilian cargo helicopter modified to meet FAR 29 and JAR 29 requirement.
Mi-171C: Chinese built variant of Mi-171 by Sichuan Lantian Helicopter Company Limited, with two radars, one weather radar in the forward section, and another Doppler navigational radar under tail boom. Clam shell doors are replaced by a single ramp door.
Mi-171E: Mi-171 equipped with VK-2500-03 engines to operate in extreme temperature limits, from -58 to 50 Celsius.
Mi-171M: Modernized Mi-171 to reduce crew from 3 to 2.
Mi-171S: Mi-171 with western avionics such as AN/ARC-320 transceiver, GPS and standard NATO flight responder.
Mi-171Sh: Export version of the Ulan-Udes Mi-8AMTSh.
Mi-172: Civil passenger version manufactured in Kazan plant and based on the Mi-8MTV-3.
Robotech (R) is the property of Harmony Gold. This document is in no way intended to infringe upon their rights.
The Mil Mi-8 (UEDF reporting name: Hip) is a medium twin-turbine helicopter, originally designed by the Soviet Union. In addition to its most common role as a transport helicopter, the Mi-8 is also used as an airborne command post, armed gunship, and reconnaissance platform. Along with the related, more powerful Mil Mi-17, the Mi-8 is among the world’s most-produced helicopters, used by over 80 countries at one time or another. The Mil Mi-17 belongs to the Mi-8 family of medium tactical helicopters. In 2061, the Mi-8 family of helicopters celebrated a century of continuous service, and are still flown by a multitude of operators today.
Role: Transport helicopter (also, several armed versions)
Design group: Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant
Built by: Kazan Helicopter Plant, Ulan-Ude Aviation Plant
Primary users: Soviet Union (historical), ca. 80 other countries, see Operators below
Number built: >20,000
Variants: Mil Mi-8T/Mi-17
Developed into: Mil Mi-14
The Mi-8 was designed by Mikhail Mil in the 1950s. Mr. Mil originally approached the Soviet government with a proposal to design an all new two-engined turbine helicopter. The military argued against a new helicopter, as they were content with the current Mil Mi-4. In order to get the go-ahead, Mikhail Mil proposed that the new helicopter was more of an update to new turbine engines rather than an entirely new helicopter. This persuaded the council of ministers to proceed with production.
The V-8 prototype was designed in 1958 and based on the Mil Mi-4 with a larger cabin. Powered by an AI-24 2,010 kW (2,700 shp) Soloviev turboshaft engine, the single engined V-8 prototype had its maiden flight in June 1961. The second prototype (still equipped with the one turbine engine as the Isotov engines were still under development) flew in September 1961. Two months after the engines were completed by Isotov, the third prototype designated V-8A equipped with two 1,120 kW (1,500 shp) Isotov TV2 engines, made its first flight piloted by Nikolai Ilyushin on 2 August 1962, marking the first flight of any Soviet helicopter to fly with purpose built gas turbine engines.
The Soviet military originally showed little interest in the Mi-8 until the Bell UH-1’s involvement in the Vietnam War became widely publicized as a great asset to the United States, allowing troops to move swiftly in and out of a battlefield and throughout the country. It was only then that the Soviet military rushed a troop-carrying variant of the Mil Mi-8 into production. By 1967, it had been introduced into the Soviet Air Force as the Mi-8.
There are numerous variants, including the Mi-8T, which, in addition to carrying 24 troops, is armed with rockets and anti-tank guided missiles. The Mil Mi-17 export version is employed by around 20 countries. The naval Mil Mi-14 version is also derived from the Mi-8. The Mi-17 was fitted with the larger Klimov TV3-117MT engines, rotors, and transmission developed for the Mi-14, along with fuselage improvements for heavier loads. Optional engines for ‘hot and high’ conditions are the 1545 kW (2070 shp) Isotov TV3-117VM. Exports to China and Venezuela for use in high mountains had the new Klimov VK-2500 version of the Klimov TV3-117 engine with FADEC control. The designation Mi-17 is for export; Russian armed forces call it Mi-8MT. The Mi-17 can be recognized because it has the tail rotor on the port side instead of the starboard side, and dust shields in front of the engine intakes. Engine cowls are shorter than on the TV2-powered Mi-8, not extending as far over the cockpit, and an opening for a bleed air valve outlet is present forward of the exhaust. Also, the Mi-17 also has some improved armor plating for its crew.
In May 2008 licensed production of the Mi-17 started in China, with production being led by Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant JSC and the Sichuan Lantian Helicopter Company Limited in Chengdu, Sichuan province. The plant built 20 helicopters in 2008, using Russian Ulan-Ude-supplied kits; production reached 80 helicopters per year eventually, with 220 having been built before the Zentraedi Rain of Death. The variants to be built by Lantian included the Mi-171, Mi-17V5, and Mi-17V7.
The Mi-8 was constantly improving until production ceased with the coming of the Invid Invasion in 2031.
By far the biggest operator, historically, of the Mi-8 series of helicopters was the former Soviet Union and its Eastern Block of Soviet Independent States (EBSIS). Even after the end of the Third Robotech War, the Hip continued to serve. Today, the Mi-8 is in active service with several former Eastern Block countries within the Federal Combined Planetary Forces. An effort has been made to replace these venerable helicopters with newer vertical lift utility platforms, but due to the sheer number of Mi-8 that were produced and the robustness of its design, it is likely that the type will still be flying into the early 80s.
Over a hundred variants of the Mi-8 have been built over the last hundred years. This is a number that continues to grow, as the type is constantly modernized to extend its service.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegovina Air Force),
Cuba (Cuban Air Force),
Ethiopia (Ethiopian Air Force),
Iraq (Iraqi Air Force),
Kazakhstan (Kazakh Air Defense Force),
Mexico (Mexican Navy),
Nigeria (Nigerian Air Force),
Poland (Polish Air Force, Polish Land Forces, Polish Navy),
Russia (Russian Air Force, Russian Naval Aviation),
Sierra Leone (Sierra Leone Armed Forces),
Tajikistan (Tajikistan Air Force),
Turkmenistan (Turkmenistan Air Force),
Ukraine (Ukrainian Ground Forces),
Uzbekistan (Uzbekistan Air Force)
India (Pawan Hans Helicopters),
Latvia (GM Helicopters),
Malaysia (Malaysian Fire and Rescue Department),
Nepal (Shree Airlines),
Poland (Polish Police)
Russia (Baltic Airlines, Kazan Air Enterprise, Vladivostok Air),
Turkmenistan (Turkmenistan Airlines),
Algeria (Algerian Air Force), Angola (Angolan Air Defense Force), Armenia (Armenian Air Force), Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan Air Force), Bangladesh (Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Air Force), Belarus (Belarus Air Force), Bhutan (Bhutan Air Force), Bulgaria (Bulgarian Air Force), Burkina Faso (Burkina Faso Air Force), Cambodia (Royal Cambodian Air Force), Chad (Chad Air Force), China (People’s Liberation Air Force, People’s Liberation Navy), Colombia (Colombian National Army Aviation), Colombia (Vertical de Aviación, Helistar), Croatia (Croatian Air Force), Czech Republic (Czech Air Force), Czechoslovakia (Czechoslovakian Air Force), Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo Democratic Air Force), Djibouti (Djibouti Air Force), East Germany (East German Air Force, East German Navy), Ecuador (Ecuadorian Army), Egypt (Egyptian Air Force), Eritrea (Eritrean Air Force), Finland (Finnish Army, Finnish Border Guard), Georgia (Georgian Air Force), Ghana (Ghana Air Force), Guinea (Military of Guinea), Guinea-Bissau (Military of Guinea-Bissau), Hungary (Hungarian Air Force), India (Indian Air Force), Indonesia (Indonesian Army), Iran (Iranian Red Crescent Society, Islamic Republic of Iran Army, Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps), Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyzstan Air Force), Laos (Laotian Air Force), Latvia (Latvian Air Force), Libya (Libyan Air Force), Lithuania (Lithuanian Air Force), Macedonia (Macedonian Air Force), Mali (Malian Air Force), Mexico (Mexican Navy), Moldova (Moldovan Air Force), Mongolia (Mongolian Air Force), Mongolia (Mongolian Airlines), Mozambique (Military of Mozambique), Myanmar (Myanmar Air Force), Namibia (Namibian Air Force), Nepal (Nepalese Army Air Service), New Zealand (Heli Harvest Ltd.), Nicaragua (Nicaraguan Air Force), Niger (Niger Air Force), North Korea (Air Koryo), North Korea (North Korean Air Force), Pakistan (Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Pakistan (Pakistan Air Force, Pakistan Army), Peru (Helispur), Peru (Peruvian Air Force, Peruvian Army, Peruvian Navy), Republic of the Congo (Congolese Air Force), Romania (Ministry of Internal Affairs: Romania), Romania (Romanian Air Force), Russia (Altai Airlines, Barkol Aviation, UTAir), Rwanda (Rwandan Defense Forces), Serbia (Serbian Air Force), Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia and Montenegro Air Force), Slovakia (Air Transport Europe), Slovakia (Slovak Air Force), Soviet Union (Soviet Air Force, Soviet Army Aviation, Soviet Naval Aviation, Aeroflot), Sri Lanka (Sri Lanka Air Force), Sudan (Sudanese Air Force), Syria (Syrian Air Force), Thailand (Royal Thai Army), Turkey (Turkish Gendarmerie), Uganda (Ugandan Air Force), Venezuela (Venezuelan Air Force, Army of Venezuela, Venezuelan Navy), Vietnam (Vietnam People’s Air Force), Yemen (Yemen Air Force), Yugoslavia (Yugoslav Air Force, Yugoslav Navy), Zimbabwe (Air Force of Zimbabwe)
Crew: Three – two pilots and one engineer
Capacity: 30 troops or 12 stretchers or 4,000 kg cargo internally / 5,000 kg externally slung.
Length: 18.465 meters
Rotor diameter: 21.25 meters
Height: 4.76 meters
Disc area: 356 m²
Empty weight: 7,489 kg
Loaded weight: 11,100 kg
Max. takeoff weight: 13,000 kg
Powerplant: 2 × Klimov TV3-117VM turboshafts, 1,633 kW each
Maximum speed: 250 km/h
Range: 465 km (standard fuel)
Service ceiling: 6,000 m
Rate of climb: 8 m/s
6 x hardpoints carrying up to 1,500 kg of disposable stores, including bombs, rockets, and gunpods.
Robotech (R) is the property of Harmony Gold. This document is in no way intended to infringe upon their rights.
The Lun-class ekranoplan (UEDF reporting name Duck) was a ground effect vehicle (GEV) designed by Rostislav Evgenievich Alexeyev and used by the Soviet navy from 1987 until 1999, and then recommissioned from 2016 until 2031.
It flew using the lift generated by the ground effect of its large wings when close to the surface of the water – about 4 meters or less. Although they might look similar and have related technical characteristics, ekranoplans like the Lun are not aircraft, seaplanes, hovercraft, nor hydrofoils–ground effect is a separate technology altogether. The International Maritime Organization classifies these vehicles as maritime ships.
Sensors and processing systems: Puluchas search radar
Armament: 6 x fixed-elevation P-270 Moskit antiship missile launchers, 4 × 23 mm PI-23 turrets (2 x 2, 2,400 rounds)
The Lun was powered with eight Kuznetsov NK-87 turbofans, mounted on forward canards, each producing 127.4 kN of thrust. It had a flying boat hull with a large deflecting plate at the bottom to provide a “step” for takeoff. It had a maximum cruising speed of 550 km/h.
Equipped for anti-surface warfare, it carried the P-270 Moskit (Mosquito) guided missile. Six missile launchers were mounted in pairs on the dorsal surface of its fuselage with advanced tracking systems mounted in its nose and tail.
The only model of this class ever built, the MD-160, entered service with the Black Sea Fleet in 1987. It is assumed that 30 were built between 1987 and 1992. All Luns were retired in the late 1990s, but were recommissioned again in the post Robotech War period after relations with the United Earth Government chilled. It is unclear how many MD-160s survived the First Robotech War, but numbers are thought to be around fifteen. These MD-160s were thought to have the ability to carry long range nuclear cruise missiles in addition to the original anti-ship missiles, but this too is unconfirmed.
Another version of Lun was planned for use as a mobile field hospital for rapid deployment to any ocean or coastal location. It was named the Spasatel (“Rescuer”). Work was about 90% done, when the military funding ended, and it was never completed.